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Intensity of surface water resources exploitation

Last update of indicator 16.12.2021

Indicator definition

Intensity of surface water resources exploitation is expressed as a percentage share of total surface water abstraction to total available exploitable surface water resources (including tributaries from the neighbouring countries). 




Key messages

Renewable water resources are defined as the sum of rainfalls (after deducting the volumes of water consumed by evapotranspiration), volumes of water that springs up in Slovakia, and the volumes of water that enter the country via watercourses from the neighbouring countries.  From the green growth perspective it is necessary to ensure the most effective possible exploitation of water resource that are important not only for the country's economic activities, but also for the quality of public life and health.
Over the monitored period we recorded the greatest degree of surface water exploitation in 2003 (1.71 %) that continued to fluctuate until 2018. Water sources in Slovakia, from the perspective of hydrological balance, have been secured , which is the result of factors including sufficient rainfalls and low evapotranspiration in mountainous areas. On the other hand, evapotranspiration has been a significant factor in the southern regions of Slovakia that show a relatively high rate of evaporation and significantly lower rainfall totals. Extreme situations (e.g. droughts, flooding rains) have not yet significantly impacted our usable water resources, and the country is able to regulate these sources during favourable periods.       
Biggest demand on water is typically recorded in densely populated areas. It is a frequent phenomenon that further supporting local sources, water transfers between watersheds or water retention in reservoirs are needed to secure sustainable satisfaction of the current needs. 

Summary assessment

International comparison

The OECD Green Growth database contains selected indicators for monitoring progress towards green growth to support policy making and inform the public at large. The database provides a synthesis of data and indicators available across a wide range of domains. The sources of the underlying data used to populate the Green Growth Indicators, as presented here, include a range of OECD databases and, in some cases, external data sources. The database covers OECD member countries, accession countries and selected non-OECD countries (including the BRIICS economies - Brazil, Russian Federation, India, Indonesia, China and South Africa).

OECD Green Growth Indicators Database


Ing. Ľubica Koreňová, SAŽP,




Selection and methodology of indicator’s assessment is based on the set of indicators proposed by the OECD and addressed by the report: "Green Growth: Monitoring progress towards green growth“. Data relating to the national situation are usually presented in the period between 2000 and 2012. Basic time sequence is changed in those cases when the data are not accessible or when their comparison is not possible due to differing approaches in their collection, assessment, changes in methodology, classification, etc.  Summary assessment of indicator’s trend from the green growth perspective is based on a subjective evaluation of the responsible assessor due to the fact that the strategy is not officially implemented in the Slovak Republic and therefore specific objectives have not been defined.  Naturally, this assessment builds on the analysis of the past trends, as well as their anticipated direction in view of the measures adopted as to date.
Selected indicators characterize Slovakia's initial position as seen from the perspective of the green growth and were to be used as a measuring tool before further steps are taken in the process of implementation of this strategy and for a complex assessment of the future trend of the Slovak economy.  Present set of green growth indicators comprises 32 individual indicators that are relevant in Slovakia's conditions. Four of them are national indicators that describe voluntary instruments of the environmental strategy.

Data sources:

Data used in this document come from the official national or international sources and databases.  Assessed trend was reviewed and discussed with the state administration specialists (individual departments of the ministries of Environment, Economy, Labour and Social Affairs and Family, Finance, Agriculture and Rural Development) and their professional organisations (Slovak Hydrometeorological Institute, State Geological Institute of Dionýz Štúr, Slovak Environmnet Agency, State Nature Consservancy, Institute for Financial Policy) and also the Statistical Office of the Slovak Republic whose databases furnish most of the information.

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