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Resource productivity

Last update of indicator24.01.2024

Indicator definition

The indicator describes the development of resource productivity expressed as a ratio of GDP to Domestic Material Consumption (DMC).




Related policy documents and targets

The need to increase the efficiency of material converting into economic output and reducing the environmental load per unit of economic performance is highlighted in the EU Sustainable Development Strategy, the EU thematic strategy for the sustainable use of natural resources and Recommendation of the OECD Council on material flows and resource productivity. They are not currently included in any strategic documents of SR.

Key question

What is the development in resource productivity?

Key messages

  • The productivity of resources in the Slovak economy in 2021 reached a value of 1.39 €/kg. Compared to 2005, it increased by 87.9%, but despite this growth, the SR is significantly behind the average resource productivity in the EU.

Change since 2005 Change since 2015 Last year-on-year change
Pozitivny trend Pozitivny trend Pozitivny trend
Since 2005, resources productivity has increased. Since 2015, resources productivity has increased. Year on year, the productivity increased.


Summary assessment

Detailed assessment

In 2021, the productivity of resources (GDP/DMC) in the Slovak economy was 1.39 euros/kg. Compared to 2005, when its value was 0.74 €/kg, it increased by 87.9%. Compared to the previous year, it recorded an increase of 3.6%. Despite the long-term growth of the Slovak Republic, it lags significantly behind the average productivity of resources in EU countries, which in 2021 reached a value of 2.1 €/kg.


International comparison


Ing. Katarína Škantárová, SAŽP,

Related definitions:

Resource productivity represents the ratio of GDP (in constant prices) and domestic material consumption (Domestic Material Consumption - DMC).
Domestic material consumption measures the total amount of materials directly spent in the economy, excluding the hidden material flows. It is determined based on the Eurostat methodology (analysis of material flows at the macro level) and it represents the sum of domestic utilised extraction, i.e. the amount of extracted mineral resources (energy, mining, non-metallic and construction materials) and produced collected biomass (agricultural crops, logging, grazed biomass and so on) that were obtained in the territory of the given state per time unit. These materials from domestic environment are added with imports and deducted of exports (imports and exports of raw materials, biomass, semi-finished goods and final consumption products). The reduction of material consumption or increasing the resources productivity  leads to a reduction of total material demands of socio-economic system and to the reduction of environmental load.


Analysis of material flows at the macro level (Economy-wide material flow analysis - EW-MFA) is a descriptive tool, which aims to provide information on flows of materials and energy entering and leaving the economic sector of the society concerned. The purpose of the material flow evaluation (balance) is – using the indicators- to quantify the overall demands of the economic system for materials which are expressed as material inputs, their consumption or waste streams releasing back from the economic system to the environment. EW-MFA indicators are compiled based on Eurostat methodology, using data transmitted to Eurostat (for SR the data are sent by the SO SR) under the Regulation No. 691/2011 on European environmental economic accounts.
Indicators of material flow are regarded to be a suitable tool for expressing the separation of environmental load and economy performance curves, as these are highly aggregated indicators of environmental load, arranged according to a fixed scheme. They quantify the total amount of materials consumed in human society, as well as the amount of materials released to the environment as the result of human activity. These indicators thus represent appropriate complement to the interdisciplinary structural balance in monetary or physical units which can be used for national economic analysis. If input indicators of material flows and consumption indicators are assigned with the indicators of national accounts, such as gross domestic product (GDP), the efficiency of the economic system is measured by converting materials into economic output. These indicators describe resource productivity (ratio of GDP and a respective indicator) or material intensity (the ratio of the indicator to GDP).

Data sources:


Related indicators:

Related international indicators:

Linked references: