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Conservation status of species of European interest

Last update of indicator 20.12.2021

Indicator definition

The indicator evaluates the share of the conservation status (favourable, unsatisfactory, bad, unknown) of plant species (in total, or lower, higher) and animal species (in total, or by group) of European interest (EI) under Article 17 of the EU Directive of Natural Habitats and the related reporting (the evaluation reports issued every six years; 2004 – 2006 / 2007 – 2012 / 2013 – 2018), as well as comparing the annual development of this share from the results of the State Nature Conservancy of the Slovak Republic (SNC SR) monitoring in the Complex Information and Monitoring System (KIMS).
 

Units

%

Metadata

Related policy documents and targets

Vision and Strategy for the Development of Slovakia until 2030 - Long-term Strategy for the Sustainable Development of the Slovak Republic - Slovakia 2030 (2021)

1. Integrated Development Program I. Resource conservation and development

I.5 Ensure effective and sustainable management of natural resources

1. Ensure the protection, restoration and improvement of natural resources, including ensuring the stability and health of ecosystems and their services and mainstreaming adaptation and mitigation measures to the adverse effects of climate change into all departmental strategic documents and municipal and regional development documents as an overriding public interest (e.g. in transport planning, energy, spatial planning, water management, agriculture, forestry, sustainable tourism, overall landscape care, etc.).

15a. Restore at least 15% of degraded ecosystems compared to 2018

15b. Increase the proportion of habitats and species of Community importance in favourable condition from 1/3 of habitats and 1/4 of species in 2018 to 2/3 of habitats and 1/2 of species by 2030.

 

Greener Slovakia – Strategy of the Environmental Policy of the Slovak Republic until 2030 (Envirostrategy 2030) (2019)

Slovakia will prevent the deterioration of protected species and habitats.

2.1 Stopping the Loss of Biodiversity

  • Conditions to minimize the negative impacts of anthropogenic activity will be created, including the impacts of climate change, causing the reduction of biological diversity of plant and animal species and loss of habitats, and the law enforcement in the field of nature protection will be enhanced.
  • The completion of the national part of the Natura 2000 network of protected areas and the systems of internationally important territories with appropriate protection, will further enhance the conditions for the protection of internationally and nationally important species and habitats and they will also increase the contribution of the Slovak Republic to halting the global loss of biodiversity.
  • By 2030, at least 15% of degraded ecosystems in Slovakia will be restored.
  • The protection of primeval forests and their habitat, as well as an appropriate management of their protection zones will be ensured.
  • The wetland restoration program and their ecosystem services, based on the participation of all concerned parties, will be implemented.
  • In cooperation with owners and land managers, via utilization of all available resources, the protection and restoration of forests, meadows and pastures that represent the highest biodiversity ecosystems and the creation of a groforestry systems will be supported.

 

Climate Change Adaptation Strategy of the Slovak Republic - Update (2018)

Proposed ecosystem-based biodiversity adaptation measures:

  • Diversification of landscape and landscape structures ensuring the heterogeneity of ecosystems, increasing the diversity of vegetation, landscaping for technical anti-erosion measures.
  • Increasing landscape connectivity - building green infrastructure, maintaining or creating corridors and connectors, reducing the barrier impact of roads and railways, development, removing barriers on streams.
  • Control/removal of invasive and expanding non-native species, systematic, long-term mapping, monitoring of invasive species populations.

 

The updated National Biodiversity Strategy up to 2020 (2014)
 

Area A Nature protection
Objective A.1 To stop the deterioration of the status of all species and habitats, especially those covered by the EU legislation and achieve a significant and measurable improvement in their status
 
Area C Biodiversity Conservation in the state policy of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries
Objective C.4 By 2020, to implement the Common agricultural policy measures favourable for biodiversity at all utilized agricultural areas in order to measurably improve the conservation status of species and habitats
 
Objective C.5 Within the implementation of caring for forests programs, to ensure the measurable improvement in the conservation status of those species and habitats that depend on sound forest environment or on which the forestry has a major impact, and ensure measurable improvement in the provision of ecosystem services in line with sustainable forest management compared to the reference scenario of the EU (2010)
 
Objective C.6 To ensure a favourable conservation status of aquatic and water-bound habitats and species, in line with the aim of achieving the good environmental status of aquatic ecosystems by 2020, whereby – within the development and regulation of aquaculture- it is necessary to provide such form of water use, which does not adversely affect aquatic species, habitats and ecosystems

 

Action plan for implementation of measures resulting from the updated National Biodiversity Strategy up to 2020 (2014)
 
Area A Nature protection

Objective A.1
Achieving the EU´s objective: up to 2020, to stop the deterioration of the status of all species and habitats, and achieve a significant and measurable improvement in their status so that (compared to the current assessment) by 100% more habitat assessments and by 50% more species assessments under the Habitats Directive would show improvement in the conservation status, and by 50% more species assessment within the Birds Directive would show a secure or improved status.
In Slovakia, it is necessary to improve the conservation status of 30 habitats and the conservation status of 49 species, while at the same time it is necessary to retain (not to worsen) the conservation status of 30 habitats and 52 species; in particular wetland habitats are prioritized; as for species, these are for example European ground squirrel, Tatra chamois, European Bison, European pond turtle, selected species of butterflies and fish. In order to achieve the objective for birds, it is needed to improve the conservation status of at least 64 species of birds, especially those for which the special protection areas are declared; the improvement of status was suggested for example for: the black stork, great bustard, partridge,  capercaillie, birds of prey, and for species tied to wetland habitats.
 
Measure A.1.1 Consistently implement the Birds Directive and the Habitats Directive, adopted resolutions and decisions of international conventions, organizations and programs and improved national legislation in order to strengthen the protection of species and habitats and also link the network of protected areas on a scientific basis
Proposed tasks:
3. To monitor the species and habitats of European interest
4. To ensure the development and update of red lists of endangered species of Slovakia and selected regions
6. To prepare or update rescue programs for endangered plant and animal species and implement measures, including the transfer and restitution of species to suitable sites
8. To improve nesting possibilities of selected and also other bird species in the Special protection areas (SPAs) and in urban habitats, and ensure the mapping and protection of feeding habitats of criteria species of birds in SPA
9. To eliminate the death of birds on power lines and bats and birds when insulating buildings.

 

Area C Biodiversity Conservation in the State Policy of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries

Objective C.4

Measure C.4.3 To identify habitats and species dependent on the mode of management and to prepare and implement particular measures with the support of respective European funds for their conservation status improvement
Proposed tasks:
107. To realize PRV scheme "Protection of permanent grassland habitats", "protection of European Ground Squirrel" and "protection of the Great Bustard" within the "Agri-environment-climate measure"

 

Key question

What is the conversation status of species of European interest?

Key messages

  • In 2019, the third 6-year assessment report on the status of species and habitats of EI (for the years 2013 2018) was prepared and submitted to the EC in accordance with Article 17 of Council Directive 92/43/EEC on the conservation of habitats and of wild fauna and flora (hereafter referred to as the "Habitats Directive");
  • Overall, the status of species deteriorated, but this result is mainly due to the introduction of improved monitoring system knowledge, improved expert estimates and the identification of relevant species data that were previously unknown. Therefore, the assessment of the latest situation is closer to reality when compared to previous reporting periods. In fact, the report doesn´t show a deterioration compared to previous periods, but a better and more realistic assessment of the situation, which is more or less the same as in previous periods;
  • According to the results of the 3rd reporting period, as of 2019, 74.9% of species of EI were in an unfavorable (unsatisfactory or bad) state.
  • The only real change from the previous assessment was recorded for Liparis loeselii (one location in the Pannonian bioregion was flooded – natural processes and the population disappeared);

 

Change since 1993 Change since 2005 Last year-on-year change
udaje nie su k dispozici emo_neutral emo_neutral
The conservation status of EI species has been assessed since 2004, i.e. since the SR´s accession to the EU. In comparison with the 1st period (2004 – 2006) and 2nd period (2007 – 2012), knowledge improved significantly in the 3rd reporting period (2013 – 2018). The share of species in the bad condition did not nearly change. The statusof EI species is evaluated for the EC every six years (the condition of implementation of measures taken according to the Directive on Birds every three years). According to the CIMS records, the condition of species of EI has improved only marginally.

 

Summary assessment

 

Detailed assessment

Species assessment

The Habitats Directive (Council Directive no.92/43/EEC on the Protection of natural habitats, wild animals and plants) implies also species protection for selected taxa of plants and animals, including the obligation to monitor the conservation status of species listed in the Annexes to the Directive (species of European importance (EI)).
 

Assessment as part of the reporting to the EC

SNC SR collects and prepares documents for the assessment report on the conservation status of habitats and species of EI pursuant to Article 17 of the Habitats Directive. The first report was prepared and submitted to the EC in 2007 (for 2004 – 2006), the second in 2013 (for 2007 – 2012) and the third in 2019 (for 2013 – 2018).

 

Assessment of the conservation satus of EI species according to the 3rd assessment report (2013 2018)

The new report for 2013 2018 is primarily based on KIMS data, which has significantly reduced the number of unknown assessments of the status of habitats and species of European interest.

It contains comprehensive information on population sizes, future prospects, mapped distribution, impacts and threats, and other important parameters. Overall, 150 species of animals and 50 species of plants were assessed, of which 5 species have not occurred in the long term and only short information about them is provided.

 

Comparison of the conservation status of 9 groups of CI species between 2007, 2013 and 2019 reports

Year of assessment

Taxonomic group

FV

XX

U1

U2

2007

Lower plants          2007

 

7

4

 

2013

Lower plants          2013

 

5

6

 

2019

Lower plants (11)  2019

3

 

6

2

2007

Higher plants          2007

13

3

23

19

2013

Higher plants          2013

11

 

27

18

2019

Higher plants (56)  2019

18

 

31

7

2007

Molluscs          2007

4

3

2

3

2013

Molluscs          2013

5

 

6

1

2019

Molluscs (12)  2019

1

 

9

2

2007

Annelida        2007

 

 

1

 

2013

Annelida        2013

1

 

 

 

2019

Annelida (1)  2019

 

 

1

 

2007

Arthropods          2007

21

21

14

22

2013

Arthropods          2013

36

8

18

16

2019

Arthropods (81)  2019

3

 

56

22

2007

Fish          2007

5

32

3

 

2013

Fish          2013

5

10

18

6

2019

Fish (42)  2019

2

4

13

23

2007

Amphibians          2007

1

1

17

6

2013

Amphibians          2013

1

1

17

6

2019

Amphibians (25)  2019

3

1

15

6

2007

Reptiles          2007

4

 

10

1

2013

Reptiles          2013

 

 

10

5

2019

Reptiles (15)  2019

 

 

14

1

2007

Mammals          2007

4

36

26

14

2013

Mammals          2013

4

36

28

11

2019

Mammals (83)  2019

46

1

29

7

Source: SNC SR
Note: The number in brackets indicates the number of status assessments aggregated for the biogeographical regions

 

Lower plants

A comparison of the overall assessments of lower plants between reporting periods shows that knowledge of all species in this group has improved due to the introduction of systematic monitoring (since 2013), as none are rated in unknown status (XX). Out of a total of 11 assessments, 3 species are in favourable condition Dicranum viride (ALP), Buxbaumia viridis (ALP) a Leucobryum glaucum (PAN). 50% of the assessments are in unfavourable condition.

 

Estimated average population size of 9 species of lower EI plants in Slovakia

Mannia triandra

individuals

16 606

Dicranum viride

area

1,8 m2

Buxbaumia viridis

area

133,0 m2

Leucobryum glaucum

individuals

359 957

Sphagnum spp.

individuals

10 655 000

Ochyraea tatrensis

area

2050 m2

Hamatocaulis vernicosus

area

99,5 m2

Scapania carinthiaca

area

0 m2

Tortella rigens

výmera

0 m2

Source: SNC SR

 

Higher plants

Currently, we have a record of the occurrence of 42 taxa of higher EI plants in Slovakia, of which one taxon – common club moss (Lycopodium spp.) aggregates 6 species. The discovery of a new locality of the Thesium ebracteatum is a positive, as it was until recently considered extinct in Slovakia, and this new locality has been included in the national list of SCIs. Plant species which occur in the Alpine biogeographical region (central and northern part of Slovakia) have a better conservation status, which results from less disturbance of the natural environment.

The most threatened species of the group include the Eleocharis carniolica, marsh gladiolus (Gladiolus palustris), four leaf clover (Marsilea quadrifolia) and fen orchid (Liparis loeseli) assessed in U2 status because they are dependent on the specific water regime of their habitats. Due to the limited number of sites of occurrence or low population numbers, they are one of the most endangered species (U2) Iris humilis subsp. arenaria (1 site in SCI Čenkov), Klasea lycopifolia (1 site in SCI Žalostiná), four leaf clover Marsilea quadrifolia (only sites in SCI Latorica). As a “specialist” can also be considered the species evaluated in U1 status, Asplenium adulterinum, which requires specific conditions of the geological substrate and microclimate – it occurs only on serpentine rocks, where it grows on bare rocks and semi-shaded crevices.

Some species of the alpine zone in Slovakia are in favourable condition, e.g. Tatra scurvy-grass (Cochlearia tatrae), white genepì (Artemisia eriantha), or certain species whose range is restricted exclusively to the territory of Slovakia – Cyclamen fatrense, Thlaspi jankae, Daphne arbuscula and grow precisely in areas with an adequate degree of protection and category of protected areas, which provide them with suitable conditions for their long-term survival.

The following graphs show the average estimated population sizes of higher plant species, calculated from 2019 reporting data.

 

Estimated average population size of selected species of higher EI plants in Slovakia

Estimated average population size of selected species of higher EI plants in Slovakia

Source: SNC SR

Estimated average population size of selected species of higher EI plants in Slovakia

Estimated average population size of selected species of higher EI plants in Slovakia

Source: SNC SR

Estimated average population size of selected species of higher EI plants in Slovakia

Estimated average population size of selected species of higher EI plants in Slovakia

Source: SNC SR

 

Invertebrates

In the 2019 reporting, 16 butterfly species were assessed, with up to 78% of butterfly assessments in unfavourable - unsatisfactory condition and only 7% in favourable condition. This is a significant downgrade from the 2013 reporting due to the use of more accurate data on these species and their habitats obtained from systematic monitoring. The most threatened species include Lopinga achine and Colias myrmidone.

A total of 15 beetle species of European interest were also assessed, of which up to 94% are in unfavourable condition. Although the knowledge about them has improved, their status in the wild in Slovakia is alarming and it is necessary to develop measures for their improvement. The most endangered species include Boros schneideri, Carabus hungaricus and Bolbelasmus unicornis.

In the dragonfly group, 6 species were assessed in the 2019 reporting and a new species Leucorrhinia caudalis was added, which occurs only in one sites in the Slovak Republic. All reported dragonfly species were assessed to be in unfavourable condition, however, this is not considered a deterioration from the 2013 reporting, but a better quality data base from regular monitoring.

The group of orthoptera is represented by 7 EI species. In the 2019 reporting, the species Isophia costata (U2 ALP) was added, which occurs at 1 site in Slovakia. Other U2 species include Saga pedo and Paracaloptenus caloptenoides. Compared to the 2013 reporting results, species knowledge has improved, with all reported species in unfavourable condition.

Of the 7 species of molluscs reported, only 1 species is in favourable condition (Roman snail, Helix pomatia). The remaining assessments are unfavourable up to 2/3 of the assessed species are in unfavourable - unsatisfactory condition. Vertigo moulinsiana and Vertigo angustior are assessed as being in poor condition in the Pannonian biogeographical region. The most serious negative impacts are interference with the water regime, wetland drainage and over-fertilisation, as well as intensive grazing and eutrophication.

Of the two crayfish species assessed (Astacus astacus, Austropotamobius torrentium), one is in poor and one in unsatisfactory condition. Changes in the hydrological regime, pollution from agricultural activities (e.g. pesticides, contaminated sludge, wastewater silage runoff) and invasive species pose the biggest threats to crayfish.

Of the large number of 44 arthropod EI species, the Bolbelasmus unicornis and the Danube clouded yellow (Colias myrmidone) are in poor condition in both bioregions. Some beetle species bound to dead wood are also in poor condition. The overall status of EI butterflies in Slovakia is unfavourable (up to 90% of their status assessments are unsatisfactory or poor).

 

Vertebrate

Out of 40 assessments (23 species) of reptiles and amphibians of EI in Slovakia, only 3 assessments are favourable for the species Pelophylax ridibundus (FV ALP/PAN) and Ablepharus kitaibelii (FV PAN). Overall, up to 90% of the assessments are unfavourable, which also reflects the negative status of the habitats in which these species live. The U1 status of most representatives of this group is unchanged since the first reporting in 2007. The species Emys orbicularis has a minimum number of reproductive sites in Slovakia, therefore the priority is to implement the measures of the conservation programme for this species in the field of legislation, monitoring, but especially practical care of water bodies where the turtle occurs.

In the 2019 reporting, 24 species of EI fish and lamprey were assessed. Acipenser ruthenus was also reported for the first time in the Danube River. Apart from two species in favourable status - Lampetra planeri (FV ALP) and Rhodeus amarus (FV PAN), three species in unknown status Eudontomyzon mariae (XX PAN) and Eudontomyzon vladykovi (XX PAN/ALP), the rest of the species are in unfavourable status mainly due to taxonomic uncertainties. Compared to 2013, however, the knowledge about them has improved. There is an alarming situation with some formerly common fish species (huchen, grayling, barbel), populations of which are now threatened mainly by the regulation of streams, the construction of barriers (small hydropower plants) and the predation of the great cormorant.

The 48 mammal species assessed are the best studied group of animals in Slovakia. Exceptions include 28 species of bats and some species of rodents recorded in our country. A positive trend was observed for the following species: European bison (Bison bonasus), Tatra chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra tatrica), Eurasian beaver (Castor fiber), Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra), brown bear (Ursus arctos) and gray wolf (Canis lupus). A negative trend was assessed for the following species: forest dormouse (Dryomys nitedula), Central European tundra vole (Microtus oeconomus mehelyi),Tatra tundra vole (Microtus tatricus), steppe polecat (Mustela eversmanii), European polecat  (Mustela putorius) and European ground squirrel (Spermophilus citellus). The status of most bat species was assessed as favourable, a change from the 2013 reporting where up to 75% of assessments were in unknown status.

 

Trend assessment

Comparison of the trend in the unfavourable status of EI species

Comparison of the trend in the unfavourable status of EI species
Source: SNC SR
Note:
U+ unfavourable (unsatisfactory and poor) but improving
U= unfavourable, but stable,
U- unfavourable and deteriorating,
Ux unfavourable and the trend of the condition is unknown

 

Assessment by biogeographical region

Overall assessment of the status of EI species by biogeographical regions of Slovakia for the period 2013 2018

Overall assessment of the status of EI species by biogeographical regions of Slovakia for the period 2013 – 2018

Source: SNC SR
Note: PAN Pannonian biogeographical region, ALP Alpine biogeographical region; the number in brackets indicates the number of status assessments aggregated for the biogeographical regions

 

The Slovak Republic has also submitted to the European Commission a report on exemptions under Article 16 of the Habitats Directive (for the years 2017 2018). Report is available on the following website https://cdr.eionet.europa.eu/sk/eu/habides/

 

Assessment of the conservation satus of EI species according to the 2nd assessment report (2007 2012)



Based on the comparison of species status with the evaluation in 2007 we can state that the knowledge improved, i.e. less assessments show an unknown status. The total share of species with the favourable assessment of the status improved, which is caused mainly by the mentioned improvement of knowledge. The share of species being in the bad condition almost did not change which indicates that the necessary measures for the re-establishment of habitats or species populations, or revitalization of localities where they are situated, are still applied unsatisfactorily. Within the species of European interest the status and other parameters were evaluated under the approved form for 195 species.
 

  • The better conservation status is achieved by plants which occur in Alpine bioregion (the central and northern part of Slovakia), which results from smaller deterioration of environment. The most endangered species still include e.g. Sand saffron (Colchicum arenarium) and Sand iris (Iris humilis subsp. Arenaria) which grow only on one locality in Slovakia, on the north border of its range. The majority of species being in the unfavourable conservation status occur in very specific and vulnerable types of habitats (moorlands, fens, waterlogged meadows, drift sands, etc.). The biggest group consists of plants being in unsatisfactory status. The species in the favourable status of conservation in Slovakia are e.g. Snowdrop (Galanthus nivalis), Scheuchzer's bellflower (Campanula serrata) and others, which are rather rare in the Western Europe or they don´t occur there at all; e.g. Cyclamen fatrense, Tatra scurvy-grass (Cochlearia tatrae) or Carpathian tozzia (Tozzia carpathica). As for Thallobionta, currently the status of bryophytes conservation is unknown for 45% of them. However, the established systematic monitoring improves the knowledge of Thallobionta of European interest in a significant extent, and in a further reporting round all species of EI Thallobionta will be assessed regarding their status.
  • As for fish species, only Asp (Aspius aspius), Amur bitterling (Rhodeus sericeus amarus) and European bullhead (Cottus gobio) are in favourable condition in the Alpine bioregion, the populations and areas of which were assessed as satisfactory. With all other fish species, they should be bigger as at present. The total status of many other species is classified as unknown. Generally we can say that protected fish species are not much explored, therefore it will be needed to pay greater attention to them. In spite of the fact that in the last decade the purity of water improved in our water flows, we have huge reserves in the field of revitalisation of damaged sections of flows and making rivers passable.
  • The total status of reptiles and amphibians conservation resulting from reporting data is very negative. None of evaluated species of EI reptiles was assessed as being in a favourable condition. As many as 3 species of reptiles are in a bad status. All other reptiles are evaluated as being in an unfavourable condition. Within the whole Europe, the group of reptiles and amphibians seems to be most endangered from all EI species, and it is necessary to pay a big attention to them.
  • Within mammals, 48 species were assessed. With the exception of 28 species of bats reported in our territory, it is the best explored group of animals.
  • Within the group of rodents, only a European beaver Castor fiber is evaluated as being in a favourable condition. All other species of rodents are in an unfavourable condition which is quite a negative result.
  • From EI carnivorous animals only species of Brown bear (Ursus arctos) and Gray wolf (Canis lupus) were evaluated as being in a favourable condition in the Alpine bioregion. All other species were evaluated as being in an unfavourable condition. Masked polecat (Mustela eversmanii) was evaluated as being in a bad condition.
  • The status of majority of bat species was evaluated as unknown. Despite the implementation of partial bat monitoring, the estimate of their populations is very problematic.
  • Within the group of ungulates, two species were assessed; Tatra chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra tatrica) and European Bison (Bison bonasus). The positive result is that in case of chamois, its status has improved from the category of unfavourable-bad to the category unfavourable-unsatisfactory, and that also thanks to the fact that in the period of six years from the last evaluation, the size of population has almost doubled.  European Bison has the status evaluated as unfavourable- unsatisfactory.

 

Comparison of the status of species in the Alpine and Pannonian biogeographic region for the 1st and 2nd assessment periods


Note: a wider line in a graph corresponds to the reporting period for 2007 – 2012, a thinner line below it displays data from the reporting period for 2004 – 2006. The quantity in brackets states the number of status evaluations in individual bioregions in the period of years 2007 – 2012.

 

Assessment under continuous monitoring from KIMS

In addition to summary evaluations of the conservation status of species and natural habitats in accordance with the Habitats Directive (for the respective reporting periods), their status is monitored in the Slovak Republic continuously in the Complex Information and Monitoring System (KIMS) of the SNC SR (State Nature Conservancy of the Slovak Republic). The monitoring subject is also 146 species of animals and 49 species of plants of EI.

 

Assessment of the conservation satus of EI species according to KIMS (as of 2020)

KIMS was supplemented in 2020 with 19,221 zoological, 23,431 botanical and 429 habitat occurrence records, including protected species. The occurrence of invasive plant species was also recorded in 738 observations.

Monitoring data in KIMS were supplemented in 2020 with 612 new records from permanent monitoring sites.

According to continuous monitoring results from KIMS, as of 2020, 25.5% species of EI were in a favourable condition, 48.4% species of EI in an unsatisfactory condition and 26.1% of species of EI in a bad condition.

 

Conservation status of EI species according to taxonomic groups in 2020 (%)

 

Favourable

Unsatisfactory

Bad

Total plants

47.6

33.6

18.8

Higher plants

51.2

36.3

12.5

Bryophytes

38.1

26.6

35.3

Total animals

22

50.7

27.3

Mammals

30.9

53.5

15.6

Reptiles

15.3

54.3

30.4

Amphibians

24.4

49.8

25.8

Fish

15.1

27.4

57.5

Crustacea

38.8

32.7

28.5

Molluscs

22.2

53.3

24.5

Odonata

26.0

33.8

40.2

Annelida

18.2

40.9

40.9

Butterflies

15.6

46.8

37.6

Orthoptera

6.6

52.9

40.5

Coleoptera

9.6

56.0

34.4

Source: SNC SR (KIMS)

 

Conservation status of EI species by biogeographical regions in 2020 (%)

 

Favourable

Unsatisfactory

Bad

ALP

26.5

48.4

25.1

PAN

23.8

48.1

28.1

Source: SNC SR (KIMS)

 

Assessment of the conservation satus of EI species according to KIMS (as of 2019)

KIMS was supplemented in 2019 with 37,153 zoological, 45,594 botanical and 1,218 habitat occurrence records, including protected and invasive species. This represents an increase of more than 32% in the total number of occurrence records entered into KIMS in 2019 compared to the same period last year.

 

Conservation status of EI species according to taxonomic groups in 2019 (%)

 

Favourable

Unsatisfactory

Bad

Total plants

47.7

33.4

18.9

Higher plants

51.6

36.2

12.2

Bryophytes

38.1

26.6

35.3

Total animals

21.9

50.6

27.5

Mammals

30.6

53.6

15.8

Reptiles

15.3

54.3

30.4

Amphibians

24.9

49.1

26.0

Fish

16.0

27.0

57.0

Crustacea

38.4

32.9

28.7

Molluscs

22.2

52.8

25.0

Odonata

26.0

33.8

40.2

Annelida

14.3

42.9

42.8

Butterflies

15.7

46.7

37.6

Orthoptera

6.6

52.9

40.5

Coleoptera

9.6

55.8

34.6

Source: SNC SR (KIMS)

 

Conservation status of EI species by biogeographical regions in 2019 (%)

 

Favourable

Unsatisfactory

Bad

ALP

26.3

48.3

25.4

PAN

23.6

47.9

28.5

Source: SNC SR (KIMS)

 

Assessment of the conservation satus of EI species according to KIMS (as of 2018)

According to continuous monitoring results from KIMS, as of 2018, 25.5% species of EI were in a favourable condition, 47.9% species of EI in an unsatisfactory condition and 26.6% of species of EI in a bad condition.
 

Conservation status of EI species according to taxonomic groups in 2018 (%)

 

Favourable

Unsatisfactory

Bad

Total plants

48.3

32.6

19.1

Higher plants

53.4

34.9

11.7

Bryophytes

38.2

28.0

33.8

Total animals

22.1

50.1

27.8

Mammals

30.7

53.0

16.3

Reptiles

14.6

54.6

30.8

Amphibians

26.0

47.9

26.1

Fish

16.3

24.9

58.8

Crustacea

39.2

31.5

29.3

Molluscs

24.0

51.7

24.3

Odonata

27.4

34.1

38.5

Annelida

12.1

39.4

48.5

Butterflies

15.8

46.4

37.8

Orthoptera

7.2

52.9

39.9

Coleoptera

9.4

55.6

35.0

Source: SNC SR (KIMS)

 

Conservation status of EI species by biogeographical regions in 2018 (%)

 

Favourable

Unsatisfactory

Bad

ALP

26.1

48.3

25.6

PAN

24.2

46.7

29.1

Source: SNC SR (KIMS)

 

Assessment of the conservation satus of EI species according to KIMS (as of 2017)

According to continuous monitoring results from KIMS, as of 2017, 24.9% species of EI were in a favourable condition, 47.6% species of EI in an unsatisfactory condition and 27.5% of species of EI in a bad condition. Of these, 37.7% of bryophytes, 54.6% of higher plants and 21.6% of animals were in favourable condition by species group.

 

 Conservation status of EI species according to taxonomic groups in 2017 (%)

 

Favourable

Unsatisfactory

Bad

Total plants

48.5

31.9

19.6

Higher plants

54.6

34.4

11.0

Bryophytes

37.7

27.6

34.7

Total animals

21.6

49.8

28.6

Mammals

29.5

53.1

17.4

Reptiles

13.8

54.8

31.4

Amphibians

26.4

47.0

26.6

Fish

17.3

23.4

59.3

Crustacea

39.2

31.5

29.3

Molluscs

23.9

51.5

24.6

Odonata

27.9

33.4

38.7

Annelida

6.9

41.4

51.7

Butterflies

16.0

46.8

37.2

Orthoptera

8.3

53.3

38.4

Coleoptera

9.3

54.6

36.1

Source: SNC SR (KIMS)

 

Conservation status of EI species by biogeographical regions in 2017 (%)

 

Favourable

Unsatisfactory

Bad

ALP

25.4

48.3

26.3

PAN

24.1

45.7

30.2

Source: SNC SR (KIMS)

 

Assessment of the conservation satus of EI species according to KIMS (as of 2016)

According to continuous monitoring results from KIMS, as of 2016, 24.3% species were in a favourable condition, 47.5% species of EI in an unsatisfactory condition and 28.2% of species of EI in a bad condition. Out of that, according to the groups of species 30.8% of bryophytes, 53.3% of higher plants and 20.3% of animals were in a favourable condition.

 

Conservation status of EI species by biogeographical regions in 2016 (%)

 

Favourable

Unsatisfactory

Bad

ALP

24.4

48.7

26.9

PAN

24.2

44.7

31.1

Source: SNC SR (KIMS)

 

Assessment of the conservation satus of EI species according to KMS (as of 2015)

According to continuous monitoring results from KIMS, as of 2015, 22.5% species of EI were in a favourable condition, 47.7% species of EI in an unsatisfactory condition and 29.8% of species of EI in a bad condition. Out of that, according to the groups of species 35.7% of bryophytes, 53.2% of higher plants and 20.3% of animals were in a favourable condition.

 

Conservation status of EI species according to taxonomic groups in 2015 (%)

 

Favourable

Unsatisfactory

Bad

Total plants

43.8

30.6

25.6

Higher plants

53.2

34.1

12.7

Bryophytes

35.7

27.6

36.7

Total animals

20.3

49.5

30.2

Mammals

26.2

54.6

19.2

Reptiles

13

54.7

32.3

Amphibians

28.6

44.2

27.2

Fish

17.1

23.5

59.4

Crustacea

39.2

31.5

29.3

Molluscs

23.4

50.7

25.9

Odonata

27.6

33.2

39.2

Annelida

7.1

39.3

53.6

Butterflies

15.7

47.9

36.4

Orthoptera

8.5

50

41.5

Coleoptera

8.6

53.6

37.8

Source: SNC SR (KIMS)

 

Conservation status of EI species by biogeographical regions in 2015 (%)

 

Favourable

Unsatisfactory

Bad

ALP

22.5

49.2

28.3

PAN

22.6

44.4

33.0

Source: SNC SR (KIMS)

 

International comparison

Chart: International comparison Conservation status of species of EU importance

https://www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/daviz/proportion-of-species-assessments-in#tab-chart_1

 

Contact

Mgr. Peter Kapusta, SAŽP, peter.kapusta@sazp.sk

Related definitions:

The species of EU importance (EI) are species which are, on the European member states´ territory (covered by the EU Treaty):

  1. endangered, except those species whose natural range is marginal in that territory, and species that are not endangered or vulnerable in the western palearctic region; or
  2. vulnerable, i.e. species, which are thought to be transferred in the near future to the category of  endangered if threatening factors continue to affect them, or
  3. rare, i. e. species with sparse populations that are not endangered or vulnerable at present, but are at risk. These species are in limited geographical areas or are thinly scattered in larger sites, or
  4. endemic and requiring particular attention due to the specific nature of the habitat and / or the potential impact of their exploitation on their habitat and / or the potential impact of their use on the status of these species from the view of protection.

Such species are or may be listed in the Annex II and / or Annex IV or V of the Habitats Directive.
 

Conservation status of species regarding the nature protection means the sum of influences affecting the species concerned that may influence the long-term distribution and abundance of its populations within the European territory of the Member States (covered by the EU Treaty).
The conservation status of species regarding the nature protection will be considered "favourable" when:
  • data on the population dynamics of the species indicate that it has been maintaining for  long time as a viable component of its habitat,
  • the natural range of the species has not been reducing, and probably it will not shrink  even in the foreseeable future,
  • there are, and will probably continue to exist sufficient habitats to maintain its populations in the long term.

 

Methodology:

Monitoring / Reports

EU Member States are obliged to continuously monitor and report on the conservation status of species of Community importance(pursuant to the Council Directive 92/43/EEC on the conservation of natural habitats and of wild fauna and flora - the EU Habitats Directive) to the European Commission every 6 years.

Pursuant to Art. 17 of the Habitats Directive, they are required to prepare a report on the implementation of the measures taken in accordance with the Directive, including an assessment of the impacts of those measures on the conservation status of Annex I habitats and Annex II species.

The first Report on the Status of Habitats and Species of Community importance for Slovakia was prepared and submitted to the EC in 2007 (for first assessment cycle / reporting period 2004 – 2006), second in 2013 (for period 2007 – 2012) and third in 2019 (for period 2013 – 2018).

The assessment, prepared every 6 years for reporting purposes, synthesises data that are systematically collected at national level from various sources, mainly monitoring. However, other data are also taken into account, such as occurrence data collected by random observations by experts on particular groups of plants and animals. It should be taken into account that the data from the reporting itself assesses a broader set of parameters compared to the assessments that are continuously reported and evaluated in the framework of systematic monitoring of habitats and species of Community importancein Slovakia. For this reason, when using these data, it is always necessary to look at these data separately (reporting and monitoring) and there may be slight differences and variances between these data resulting from the completeness of the set of parameters assessed as well as from differences in the assessment methodologies of the two datasets.

 

Species

The indicator is based on the results of this reporting (from the so-called assessment reports), as well as on the continuous monitoring data of 150 species of animals and 50 plant species of CI at the level of the Slovak Republic within the framework of the Comprehensive Information and Monitoring System operated by the SOP SR, of which 5 species do not occur in the long term and only abbreviated information about them is provided.

 

The indicator offers an overall assessment of species as well as by their respective groups:

Total plants

Higher plants

Bryophytes

Total animals

Mammals

Reptiles

Amphibians

Fish

Crustacea

Molluscs

Odonata

Annelida

Butterflies

Orthoptera

Coleoptera

 

Conservation status

EU Member States must monitor and report the conservation status of species of EI (Annex II, IV, V of the Directive). The conservation status is expressed in three 'traffic light' categories ('Favourable (FV)' – green, 'unfavourable - unsatisfactory (U1)' – orange, 'unfavourable - bad (U2)' – red, plus unknown (XX) – grey).

The indicator is based on the number of species in these categories and changes between the individual categories over the time.

The indicator is formed on the basis of valid European methodologies by aggregating large sets of data obtained within the monitoring of species at SR level.

 

Data sources:

State Nature Conservancy of the SR (SNC SR)

 

The results of the 3rd CI species assessment in Slovakia were published in the document:

Černecký, J., Čuláková, J., Ďuricová, V., Saxa, A., Andráš, P., Ulrych, L., Šuvada, R., Galvánková, J., Lešová, A., Havranová, I. 2020. Report on the status of habitats and species of Community importance for the period 2013-2018 in the Slovak Republic. Banská Bystrica: ŠOP SR, 109 pp, ISBN 978-80-8184-076-0.

 

More information from the reporting results can be found on the website:

http://www.sopsr.sk/natura/dokumenty/Monografia_reporting_art17_2013_2018.pdf

 

All related reports are published on the SNC SR website:

(http://www.sopsr.sk/natura/index1.php?p=15&lang=sk).

 

Related indicators:

Linked references: