Last update of indicator13.12.2021
The concept of the water policy of the Slovak Republic until 2030 with a view to 2050 (2022)
The concept of water policy focuses on ten priority areas, which are interconnected, and focuses on the area of water use.
3. Sustainable use of water
Goal 3.1. Sustainable and efficient use of surface and underground waters without endangering their quantity and quality
Goal 3.2. Functional crisis management in times of drought and water shortages
4. Water for all residents
Goal 4.1. Ensuring the supply of health-safe drinking water for all residents
Goal 4.2. Increasing the connection of residents to municipal wastewater treatment systems and increasing the share of treated municipal wastewater
Water plan of the Slovak Republic for period 2022 - 2027 - Update 2021 (2021)
Environmental objectives aim to ensure and improve the quality of aquatic ecosystems and sustainable, balanced and equitable water use. Environmental targets are defined for surface water bodies, the groundwater bodies and the protected areas.
Environmental target for underground water bodies is to perform measures aimed at:
Plan for the development of public water supply systems and public sewers for the territory of the Slovak Republic for the years 2022 - 2027 (2021)
A. Plan for the development of public water supply systems
1. Enough clean water for everyone
1.1 The prevention of water pollution
1.3. Elimination of adverse impacts on water courses
Orientation, Principles and Priorities of the Slovak Republic Water Management Policy by 2027 (2016)
3. PRINCIPLES AND PRIORITIES OF THE SLOVAK REPUBLIC WATER MANAGEMENT POLICY BY 2027 AND FRAMEWORK PROCEDURES IN ACHIEVING THE OBJECTIVES:
With a view to water status improvement:
In order to ensure the efficient use of water resources:
Strategy of SR adaptation to adverse impacts of climate change (2018)
5. Strategy objectives
To propose appropriate set of proactive adaptation measures and mechanisms to their implementation within the framework of sectoral policies, development strategies and action plans at all levels of the process;
8. Proposed adaptation measures in individual areas
8.5.3. Water management
Adaptation measures in our country should be directed to the compensation of drought manifestations, i.e. the decrease of flows and water resource yields, as well as to minimization of adverse consequences of flooding, particularly of flash floods in mountain and foothill areas. Adapting to the climate change in water management area should be focused on the implementation of measures leading to the creation of conditions for the better management of runoff in the river basin.
Water is becoming a critical strategic resource of the country which must be protected, and its efficient and effective use must be managed, in accordance with an objective to ensure the sustainable development. Rightly, the biggest attention is paid to water resources, their conservation and the need for more efficient use.
Measures to prevent degradation of water by contamination
- reducing contaminants in water bodies in accordance with the Slovak Water Plan
|Change since 2005
|Change since 2015
|Last year-on-year change
Since 2007, groundwater quality has been monitored in quaternary and pre-quaternary groundwater bodies as part of basic and operational monitoring. In the evaluation of the chemical status of groundwater bodies (GB) in the 3rd evaluation period (2013-2018), compared to the 1st period (2007-2008), an increase in the number of bodies in good chemical condition by 23 bodies was recorded, and compared to the 2nd period (2009-2013) ) by 21 GB, whereby in the 3rd evaluated period, 80.19% of GB achieved good chemical status. In the evaluation of the quantitative status of the GB, there was a decrease in the 3rd evaluation period (2013–2018) compared to the 1st evaluation period (2007–2008), and compared to the 2nd evaluation period (2009–2013) an increase in the share of departments in good quantitative status to 90.88% (1st evaluation period - 93.33%, 2nd evaluation period - 70.59%).
In both types of monitoring, unfavorable oxidation-reduction conditions come to the fore, as indicated by the exceeded values of the Mn and Fetot indicators. The most frequent unsatisfactory indicator in all quaternary formations was the percentage oxygen saturation.
In 2022, the quality of underground water was evaluated according to the decree of the Ministry of Health of the Slovak Republic no. 91/2023 Coll., there was an increase in the number of monitoring objects of the state hydrological network to 630 (compared to 396 objects in 2021), the number of exceeded indicators also increased to 2,044 (1,360 indicators were exceeded in 2021). The latest current assessment of the state of groundwater bodies is processed for the needs of the Water Plan of Slovakia - 2nd update, which covers 106 groundwater bodies and is based on the reference period 2013-2018.
75 water bodies (16 quaternary and 59 pre-quaternary) were defined in Slovakia. Monitoring of the chemical state of groundwater was divided into basic monitoring, which is performed once every six years, and operational monitoring is performed annually. Operational monitoring is carried out in all groundwater bodies that have been evaluated as risky from the point of view of failure to achieve a good chemical status and is a prerequisite for the capture of possible penetration of pollution into groundwater from a potential source of pollution or their group. Groundwater quality was monitored in 630 objects in 2022. They are objects of the SHMI state hydrological network or springs. Groundwater samples in these objects were taken depending on the type of rock environment: 1 time in 249 pre-quaternary objects and 1 Quaternary object, 2 times in 44 pre-quaternary objects and 336 quaternary objects. The samples were taken in spring and autumn, when extreme conditions of groundwater should be captured. The results of laboratory analyzes were evaluated according to the Decree of the Ministry of Health of the Slovak Republic (MH SR) 91/2023 Coll., which establishes indicators and limit values of drinking water quality and hot water quality, the procedure for monitoring drinking water and risk management of the drinking water supply system and risk management home distribution systems.
Conductivity values measured in the field exceeded the indicative value given by government regulation 185 times out of the total number of 1383 determinations, pH with the exception of 29 samples was within the range of limit values. The most frequently exceeded indicators include Mn and total Fe, which points to the ongoing unfavorable state of oxidation-reduction conditions. In addition to these indicators, the influence of anthropogenic pollution on groundwater quality is indicated by the exceeded limit values of Cl- and SO42-. The character of land use (agricultural areas) is reflected in increased contents of oxidized and reduced forms of nitrogen in groundwater, of which NH4 (146 times) and NO3- (127 times) contributed the most to the exceedance. In the objects of groundwater quality monitoring, in 2022 the permissible value set by the regulation was exceeded in the group of trace elements by indicators of As (48 times), Al (7 times), Ni (7 times), Hg (6 times), Pb (5 times), and Sb (1 time). The presence of specific organic substances in groundwater is an indicator of human activity. In 2022, a wider range of specific organic substances was recorded. From the group of polyaromatic hydrocarbons, which have a limit value given by Decree of the MH SR 91/2023 Coll., limit values were exceeded for the indicators benzo(a)pyrene and the sum of polyaromatic hydrocarbons, in the group of volatile aliphatic hydrocarbons the limit values were exceeded for these indicators - benzene, chlorobenzene, the sum of PCE and TCE, vinyl chloride and 1,2-dichloroethane (1,2 DCA). The highest concentrations of PCE and TCE, which exceeded the limit value of the decree, were recorded in object 309390 Moldava nad Bodvou in both sampling cycles. Furthermore, in the group of volatile aromatic hydrocarbons, the sum of dichlorobenzenes (1.2, 1.3 and 1.4) exceeded the limit value in object 270790 BA-Za Dynamitkou. The most frequent pesticides with concentrations above the limit value were promethrin, hydroxyatrazine (hAtz) and desethylatrazine, to a lesser extent atrazine (Atz), hydroxyterbutylazine (hTerbutyl), S-metolachlor, propiconazole, lindane, tebuconazole, terbutrin and the sum of pesticides (PLs represents the sum of actually measured values of all monitored pesticides in one analysis). The influence of anthropogenic activity on the quality of groundwater is also expressed by increased concentrations of CHSKMn (27 times). In the group of general organic substances, the values of total organic carbon were exceeded 102 times.
As follows from the purpose of the monitoring program, the basic monitoring observation objects are located in areas unaffected by human activity, therefore the groundwater also shows a better quality compared to the operational monitoring objects designed to capture the action of significant sources of groundwater pollution.
Evaluation of the quality of groundwater in the territory of Žitné ostrov (2021 - 2022)
As part of the monitoring of groundwater on Rye Island, the issue of unfavorable oxidation-reduction conditions comes to the fore, as indicated by frequent increased concentrations of total iron, manganese and ammonium ions. The prevailing nature of land use in the monitored area (urbanized and agriculturally used territory) is reflected in increased contents oxidized and reduced forms of nitrogen in waters. In addition to these indicators, the influence of anthropogenic pollution on groundwater quality is indicated by the exceeded limit values of Cl- and SO42-. Exceeding the limit value of SO42- (sulphates) was recorded in a total of 22 cases. In the monitored period, increased concentrations of arsenic were recorded 21 times in the group of trace elements, 8 times in the left-bank riparian zone of the Danube (6013 Kalinkovo), 4 times in the middle part Žitného ostrov (7293 Veľké Blahovo), 2 times in the lower part of Žitného ostrov (2602 Komárno) and 7 times in the river zone of the Little Danube (6012 Vlky). In the group of trace elements, the limit value of Hg (mercury) was also exceeded 4 times, 2 times in the left-bank riparian zone of the Danube, 1 time in the upper part of Žitné ostrov and 1 time in the lower part of Žitné ostrov. In the upper part of Žitné ostrov, the limit value of Al (aluminum) was also exceeded and the limit value of Pb (lead) was exceeded 1 time in object 601095 Dobrohošť. For the other monitored trace elements, no increased concentrations were recorded during the monitored years. In 2021 and 2022, hydroxyatrazine (11x), hydroxyterbuthylazine (6x), desethylatrazine (8x) and promethrin (18x) were the most frequently involved in groundwater contamination from the group of pesticides. Other pesticides that exceeded the limit value in these years include atrazine (3x), lindane (3x), propiconazole (1x) and S-metolachlor (1x). In eight objects, the amount of pesticides exceeded the limit value given by Decree of the Ministry of Health SR 91/2023Z.z. (PLs represents the sum of the actual measured values of all monitored pesticides in one analysis). From the group of polyaromatic hydrocarbons, which have a limit value given by Decree of the Ministry of Health SR 91/2023 Coll., this value was not exceeded in both years. In the group of volatile aliphatic hydrocarbons, vinyl chloride (chloroethene) exceeded the limit value in both years and the sum of PCE and TCE, especially in 2022. Most of the monitored specific organic substances were determined below the detection limit of the analytical method used.
The evaluation of the condition of underground water bodies is performed by evaluating their chemical and quantitative conditions.
Out of the total number of 75 underground water bodies, the following bodies have been evaluated:
The good chemical condition was indicated in 85.3% of underground water bodies, i.e. 77.9% of the total area of bodies. The bad condition was indicated in 14.7% of underground water bodies, i.e. 22.1% of the total area of units.
The evaluation of the quantitative condition of underground water bodies is the assessment of the influence of documented impacts on the underground water bodies as a whole. The basic indicator of the quantitative condition of underground water bodies was determined to be the stabilized regime of the underground water level (or abundance of springs); the others included the balance evaluation of quantities of underground water and changes in the underground water regime based on the monitoring programme results. In the Slovak Republic, four underground water bodies were included in the bad quantitative condition.