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Greenhouse gas emissions

Last update of indicator 09.12.2021

Indicator definition

The indicator represents the evolution of total greenhouse gas emissions compared to reduction targets.

Units

Gg

Metadata

Related policy documents and targets

UN Framework Convention on Climate Change(1992)

In Slovakia the Convention entered into force on March 21, 1994. The Slovak Republic accepted all the obligations of the Convention, and till now it has been ratified by 183 countries of the world including the EU.
 

Kyoto protocol to UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (1997)

SR adopted a reduction target not to exceed, in the period 2008-2012, the average level of greenhouse gas emissions of 1990 decreased by 8%. In spring 2007, the European Parliament adopted the unilateral commitment to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions in the EU by at least 20% by 2020, compared to 1990. Further a statement followed that the EU will extend this commitment to a 30% reduction, if it is accepted also by other developed countries of the world, and developing countries with more advanced economies will join them with the commitments adequate to their responsibilities and capabilities.

Amendment to the Kyoto Protocol (2012)

By this addendum it was decided on continuing the protocol, and the second term mandatory eight-year period was laid down (2013-2020). Reduction obligations of the EU and the member states for a second KP term are the same as adopted emission reduction targets by 2020, according to the climate and energy package, i.e. 20% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions compared to 1990 level. A new gas - nitrogen trifluoride NF3 will be added to monitored six greenhouse gases from the first period, which has a very high global warming potential, which implies the multiplication of radiation effect.

Paris Global Climate Convention (2016)
On 4 November 2016, the historically first universal convention on the climate change came into force – the Paris Convention. The Slovak Republic finished its domestic ratification process on 28 September 2016 with the signature of the President of the Republic, Mr Andrej Kiska. The European Union under leading of the Slovak presidency of the Council of the EU filed the ratification documents in the UN headquarters in New York on 5 October 2016, whereby the double quorum for ratification was achieved, and so the European Union became the initiator of the Paris Convention.
The target of the Paris Convention is to limit the growth of global temperature by the end of the century to maximally 2 °C and, if possible, considerably below this value, down to 1.5 °C.
The Paris Convention is ground-breaking in particular in three important factors:

  • For the first time, it brings reduction obligations not only for developed countries, but also for all countries that are its contracting parties, while each country defines itself in what manner and in what sectors it will try to decrease greenhouse gas emissions.
  • For the first time, the Paris Convention also deals more consistently with the adaptation and embodies the duty to prepare for consequences of the climate change, monitor and evaluate impacts and build resistance of ecosystems and social and economic systems.
  • The duty to monitor emissions and inform of their quantity also applies to all countries, not only to developed ones.

 

Integrated Climate and Energy Package (2008)

It is crucial, complex and highly ambitious solution for reducing greenhouse gas emissions, for increasing energy efficiency, reducing the consumption of fossil fuels and the promotion of innovative, low-carbon technologies.


The Europe 2020 strategy for smart, sustainable and inclusive growth (2010)

- by 2020, to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by at least 20% compared to 1990 levels, or by 30% under favourable conditions

- the increase of energy efficiency by 20% by 2020

- achieving 20% share of renewable sources in final energy consumption, including a 10% share of biofuels in petrol and diesel by 2020.

Strategy, Principles and Priorities of State Environmental Policy (1993)
A SECTOR - AIR AND OZONE LAYER PROTECTION
• Reducing emissions of basic air pollutants (SO2, NOx, CO, CxHy, particulate emissions), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), persistent organic pollutants (POPs), heavy metals, CO2 and other emissions causing greenhouse effect, to a level complying with international conventions.
• Avoid using fully halogenated hydrocarbons and halons, carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), 1,1,1 - trichloroethane and brominated non- fully halogenated hydrocarbons, reducing the consumption of hydrocarbons and other non-fully halogenated hydrocarbons  and methyl bromide,  application, compliance and control of the production and use of ozone-layer depleting substances.
• Development and implementation of national programs aimed at reducing emissions of carbon dioxide and other gases causing the greenhouse effect increase, not covered by the Montreal Protocol on ozone-layer depleting substances, including minimization of coal combustion and its more rational recovery, as well as the use of gasoline-powered vehicles with three-way catalyst.
• The introduction of smog warning and control systems and a unified emergency system, preventing smog episodes.
• Completion of a comprehensive system of laws on protection of the atmosphere and the ozone layer, harmonized with EU law, which will not allow activities, above the extent permitted, threatening and damaging the environment by the air pollution, depletion of the ozone layer and climate change.
• Broader application of fuels and means of transport, non-polluting the environment (e.g. gas, electricity, unleaded gasoline).
• Completion of comprehensive monitoring and information system of the SR Environment - air.
 
National Strategy of the Slovak Republic Sustainable Development /SD/ (2001)
Strategic goals of SD which are necessary to be achieved within the heading to the long-term priorities are to:
• Reduce the environmental load of the environment
• Mitigate the effects of global climate change, depletion of the ozone layer and natural       disasters
• Improve the quality of the environment in the regions.
 
Policy Statement of the Slovak Republic Government for the period 2012-2016 (2012)
In order to reduce air pollutants, the government shall adopt ancillary instruments for reducing emissions from industry, energy and mobile sources and focus on the use of cars with low emissions.
 
Strategy of SR Adaptation to Adverse Effects of Climate Change (2014)
Strategy objectives of SR adaptation to the adverse effects of climate change:
• To provide objective information on the current state of the adaptation processes in the Slovak Republic;
•To describe its manifestations in the Slovak Republic based on available climate change scenarios;
• To analyse the expected impact of climate change on critical areas / sectors of economic activities;
• To propose appropriate set of proactive adaptation measures and mechanism for their implementation within the framework of sectoral policies, development strategies and action plans at all levels of the process;
• To identify practices in preventing and managing the risks, associated with extreme weather events, in order to minimize the related social and economic costs;
• To promote the development and application of methodologies, models and tools for better assessment of  investment risks, associated with the costs for damage and adaptation at the regional, local level, but also at the individual project level;
• Based on an inventory of the current state-to adopt recommendations for the development of information technology and building of knowledge base for more effective adaptation;
• To identify opportunities associated with the process of adaptation, and create conditions for their practical implementation;
• To propose criteria for selecting and evaluating the investment priorities within the adaptation measures;
• To suggest a system for monitoring, evaluation and review of adaptation measures with respect to the dynamics and uncertainty of future development scenarios of climate change;
• To enable effective interconnection of proactive adaptation measures for funding within the prepared Operational programs for the period 2014 - 2020 and within the new financial instrument LIFE;
• The final goal is to create a fundamental institutional and information infrastructure that would allow to the SR the efficient and cost-effective adaptation to the adverse effects of climate change by 2020.

Key question

Have been the reduction objectives of greenhouse gas emissions met?

Key messages

  • Greenhouse gas emissions have declined over the longer term (by 45.6% in 2019 compared to 1990). Year-on-year (2018-2019) greenhouse gas emissions recorded a slight decrease of 5.2%.
  • Greenhouse gas emissions in the sectors covered by the European Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS) fell by 21.1% between 2005 and 2019 and decreased by 10.3% year-on-year.
  • Greenhouse gas emissions in sectors not covered by the EU ETS decreased by 13.2% between 2005 and 2019 and decreased by 4.6% compared to the last two years.
Change since 1990 Change since 2005 Last year-on-year change Progress in achieving of concrete defined objective
Pozitivny trend Pozitivny trend Pozitivny trend Pozitivny trend
A decrease in greenhouse gases was recorded. The quantity of greenhouse gas emissions fell, while CO2  productivity increased. As CO2 emissions are falling while gross domestic product is rising, we can speak of absolute decoupling, which is a positive trend.
 
Although greenhouse gas emissions increased year-on-year, this was only very moderately and the trend is relatively stable from the short-term perspective.

The target to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the ETS sectors by 43% and in the non-ETS sectors by 20% by 2030 compared to 2005 is likely to be achieved with current trends, supported by the implementation of the measures taken.

Summary assessment

 

Detailed assessment

Total anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions for 2019 amounted to 39,948,333 tonnes of CO2 equivalents (excluding the LULUCF sector).

Compared to 1990, total anthropogenic emissions decreased by 45.6%. After a significant decline in 2009, the trend in total anthropogenic emissions for 2010-2014 was slightly decreasing and a slight increase was observed in 2015, 2016 and 2017. There was a slight decrease of 0.3% in 2018 compared to 2017. In 2018, decoupling, i.e. slower growth in greenhouse gas emissions compared to GDP growth, was maintained. This positive development is mainly the result of the restructuring and rebuilding of industry and the energy sector, as well as the introduction of measures aimed at saving and efficient use of energy.

The main source of data on greenhouse gas emission trends is the National Inventory Report of the Slovak Republic for the year 2021, which lists 2019 as the last year assessed.

Nevertheless, the energy sector (including transport), with a share of 67.2%, was the main contributor to total greenhouse gas emissions in 2019. Compared to the previous year, transport emissions increased by over 2% and accounted for 20.2% of total emissions. In addition to fuel combustion in stationary sources, pollution from small residential heating systems and fugitive methane emissions from transport, oil and gas processing and distribution also contribute significantly to total greenhouse gas emissions. The industrial processes and product use sector was the second most important sector in 20198, accounting for 21.8% of total greenhouse gas emissions. The most common increasing emissions within this sector are HFC and SF6 emissions due to industrial demand and use in the construction, building insulation, electrical and automotive industries. In 2019, the agriculture sector's share of total greenhouse gas emissions was just under 7%, and the trend in emissions has remained relatively stable since 1999. The waste sector contributed 4.1% to total greenhouse gas emissions. The shares of individual sectors in total greenhouse gas emissions have not changed significantly compared to the 1990 base year. Nevertheless, the increase in transport emissions and the reduced share of stationary sources of pollution in the energy sector are visible.

 

Aggregated anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions in CO2 equivalent (Gg)
  1990 2005 2010 2016 2017 2018 2019
CO2 (without LULUCF)

61 475,36

42 792,59

38 411,71

34 855,94

36 030,61

36 029,54

33 773,45

CO2 (with LULUCF)

51 692,69

37 011,52

32 215,83

28 110,40

29 387,67

30 301,06

27 362,53

CH4  (without LULUCF)

7 300,90

4 309,70

3 867,10

3 448,40

3 426,60

3 318,89

3 304,74

CH4  (with LULUCF)

7 310,98

4 333,61

3 885,31

3 467,46

3 447,79

3 339,81

3 329,25

N2O  (without LULUCF)

4 294,98

2 921,38

2 443,24

2 122,10

2 014,74

2 090,75

2 135,35

N2O  (with LULUCF)

4 391,52

2 962,60

2 473,01

2 157,48

2 051,48

2 127,93

2 179,01

HFCs F-plyny

NO

292,99

597,24

673,37

739,06

702,77

720,74
PFCs

314,86

24,16

25,01

6,49

8,62

7,78

5,19

SF6

0,06

16,38

19,62

5,82

7,08

9,39

8,86

NF3

NO

NO

NO

NO

NO

NO

NO

Total (with LULUCF)

73 386,16

50 357,19

45 363,93

41 112,67

42 226,70

43 475,29

39 948,33

Total (with LULUCF)

63 710,11

44 641,26

39 216,03

34 421,01

35 641,70

36 890,91

33 605,57


Emissions determined as of 13 April 2021
The years 1990 to 2018 have been recalculated in the table
LULUCF (Land use, land-use change, and forestry)


Aggregated anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions in CO2 equivalents (mil. t)

  1990 2000 2005 2010 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
Energy*

56,28

35,98

36,22

32,01

27,27

27,43

28,36

28,21

26,84

Industrial processes and product use**

9,70

8,53

10,09

9,42

9,08

9,30

9,57

9,55

8,69

Agriculture

6,00

2,79

2,63

2,40

2,70

2,77

2,64

2,73

2,77

LULUCF

-9,68

-9,86

-5,72

-6,15

-6,62

-6,69

-6,59

-5,67

-6,34

Waste

1,41

1,36

1,42

1,53

1,66

1,62

1,65

1,67

1,64


Emissions determined as of 13 April 2021
The years 1990 to 2018 have been recalculated in the table
* Emissions with counting emissions from transport **, Emissions with counting the F-Gases emissions
  Zdroj: SHMI

 

 

International comparison

Contact

Ing. Dorota Hericová, SAŽP, dorota.hericova@sazp.sk

Related definitions:

Greenhouse gases are gaseous substances that cause the greenhouse effect. These include carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O) and fluorinated greenhouse gases, also known as F-gases, which are divided into the groups consisting of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6). These are emissions produced during the natural processes and human activities. The most important natural greenhouse gas in the atmosphere is water vapor. During human activities the large amounts of other greenhouse gases are released into the atmosphere, thereby the atmospheric concentrations are increased. Greenhouse gases are given in the so-called CO2 equivalents, which is a value indicating the degree of influence of each greenhouse gas on global warming, using the conversion on the amount or concentration of CO2 which would have similar effects. Increasing emissions of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere intensify the greenhouse effect, which in turn causes climate change.

The aggregated emission values in "CO2 equivalent" units are values converted by using the GWP (Global Warming Potential) coefficients. The values of GWP coefficients for individual greenhouse gases are published in partial reports on IPCC methodology and they are internationally recognized standards.

 

Decoupling –bifurcation of trends. The separation of environmental load curves and economic performance. The aim of decoupling is to make the environmental burden -expressed through selected "environmental evil"- decline, and the economic performance -expressed by means of selective "economic good" - grow.

The environmental "evil" may be the volume of emission discharges, waste production, consumption of raw materials and energy, the volume of motorized traffic etc. In general, the environmental indicator reflecting the environmental burden through the "economic good" is most often an indicator of gross domestic product (GDP), which is considered the quality of life indicator.

 

The European Union Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS) is a key instrument by which the EU seeks to achieve greenhouse gas emission reductions, to which it committed itself under the Kyoto Protocol - to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 8% by 2012 , compared to 1990. The scheme is legally based on the Directive 2003/87/EC, which entered into force on October 25, 2003. It began to be operational in January 2005. The European system is open to cooperation with other compatible emissions trading schemes, which extends the potential range of emission market. The EU ETS´ aim is to enable the European Union member states to fulfil the commitments under the Kyoto Protocol. The system is not based on the new environmental targets identification, but on the use of market mechanisms.

 

1Gg= thousand t.

Methodology:

The expert guarantor for defining a methodology for greenhouse gas emission specification is IPCC (International Panel on Climate Change), established in 1988 by WMO (World Meteorological Organization) and UNEP (United Nations Environment Programme). The mission of the IPCC is to assess scientific, technical and socio-economic information relevant to the understanding of impacts of climate change, to process and publish guides and manuals on methodologies for greenhouse gas inventories intended for national experts.
More on:

http://ghg-inventory.shmu.sk/methodology.php

 

Data sources:

SHMI

Related indicators:

Related international indicators:

Linked references: