Dátum poslednej aktualizácie:24.01.2024

The indicator describes the observable development of the average annual air temperature as one of the negative manifestations of climate change in the Slovak Republic

- The year 2022 ended as above-normally warm in almost the entire territory of Slovakia (up to strongly above-normally warm in the west of the country and in the southern districts of central and eastern Slovakia) compared to the values from the period 1991-2020 with deviations of +0.3 °C to +1.3 °C.
- Based on the territorial average of the Slovak Republic (9.9 °C), the year 2022 ended as the 4th warmest since at least 1931 with a deviation of +2.1 °C from the average from 1961 – 1990, or +1.6 °C from 1981 - 2010, or 1.0 °C from 1991 – 2020. The highest average annual air temperature we recorded in Bratislava at the airport was 12.4 °C, the lowest at Lomnicky štít - 2.4 °C. The other 3 warmest years (in terms of annual air temperature) were in 2014 (10.2 °C), 2019 (10.1 °C) and 2018 (10.1 °C).

Change since 2005 | Change since 2015 | Last year-on-year change |
---|---|---|

An increase in the average annual temperature was recorded. | The negative effects of climate change continued, including an increase in the average annual temperature. | The last year was very significant in terms of the average annual temperature. |

**Average annual air temperature in Slovakia for 2022**

Zdroj: SHMÚ

**Deviations of the average annual air temperature for the year 2022 from the normal 1991-2020**

Source: SHMI

**Average annual air temperature (1951 – 2022) **

The territorial (Slovakia) **average January air temperature in 2022 (-0.6 °C) was the 12th highest at least since 1951** with a deviation of +1.5 °C compared to the period 1991-2020 (or +3.0 ° C, 1961–1990, +2.0 °C, 1981–2010). January 2022 was normal in temperature (deviations -2 °C to +2 °C) in central and eastern Slovakia, only in western Slovakia was it above normal in temperature (deviations +2.1 °C to +3.5 °C). We recorded the highest value of the average January air temperature (2.9 °C) in Bratislava at the airport, which is +2.6 °C more than the average value from the period 1991 – 2020 (+4.3 °C, 1961 – 1990, or by +3.2 °C, 1981 – 2010, the lowest value (-11.8 °C) on the Lomnicki štít, which represents a -1.7 °C deviation from the average values from the period 1991 – 2020 (-0.6 °C, 1961 – 1990, respectively - 1.4 °C, 1981 – 2010).

The territorial (Slovakia) **average February air temperature in 2022 (2.4 °C) was the 11th highest at least since 1951** with a deviation of +2.9 °C from the average values from the period 1991-2020 (+3.7 °C, 1961 – 1990, or +3.5 °C, 1981 – 2010). February in 2022 was temperature above normal (deviations from +2.1 °C to +3.0 °C) to strongly above normal (deviations from +3.1 °C to +5.0 °C) especially in the West Slovak region (except the Trenčín region ), temperature normal (deviations -1.5 °C to +2.0 °C) only in the Tatras area. We recorded the highest value of the average February air temperature (5.5 °C) in Bratislava at the airport, which represents a +3.6 °C deviation from 1991 – 2020 (respectively +4.6 °C, 1961 – 1990, +4.3 °C, 1981 – 2010, the lowest (- 10.9 °C) on the Lomnicki štít, which represents a deviation of -0.3 °C from the average values from the period 1991 – 2020 (+0.4 °C, +3.0 °C , 1961 – 1990, or +0.3 °C, 1981 – 2010.

The territorial (Slovakia)** average March air temperature in 2022 (3.1 °C) was the 34th highest at least since 1951** with a deviation of -0.4 °C from the average values from the period 1991 – 2020 (+0.4 °C, 1961 - 1990, or 0.0 °C from 1981 - 2010). March in 2022 was temperature normal (deviations -2 °C to 1.5 °C) compared to the period 1991 - 2020. We recorded the highest value of the average March air temperature (6.4 °C) in Bratislava (at Koliba), which represents a +0.7 °C deviation from the values from the period 1991 - 2020 (or +1.7 °C, 1961 - 1990, +1.2 °C, 1981 - 2010, the lowest (-8.9 °C) on Lomnica shield, which represents a deviation of 0.0 °C from the average values from the period 1991 – 2020 (or +0.3 °C, 1961 – 1990, +0.3 °C, 1981 – 2010).

The territorial (Slovakia) **average April air temperature in 2022 (7.2 °C) was the 59th highest (14th lowest) at least since 1951** (or 20th lowest since 1931) with a deviation of -2.2 °C from the average values from the period 1991–2020 (or -1.0 °C, 1961–1990, or -1.6 °C from 1981–2010). April in 2022 was temperature subnormal (deviations -2.5 °C to -1.1 °C) in central Slovakia and the extreme southeast to strongly subnormal (deviations -4 °C to -2.6 °C) compared to values from the period 1991 – 2020. The highest value of the average April air temperature (10.3 °C) was recorded in Bratislava (at the airport), which represents a -1.4 °C deviation from the values from the period 1991 – 2020 (+0.1 ° C 1961 – 1990, or -0.8 °C, 1981 – 2010, the lowest value (-6.5 °C) on Lomnicki štít, which represents a deviation of -1.7 °C from the average values from the period 1991 – 2020 (or -0.8 °C, 1961–1990, respectively -1.1 °C, 1981–2010).

The territorial (Slovakia) **average May air temperature in 2022 (14.9 °C) was the 13th highest at least since 1951 **with a deviation of +0.9 °C from the average values from the period 1991 – 2020 (or +1.8 ° C, 1961–1990, +1.0 °C, 1981–2010). May in 2022 was temperature normal (deviations -1.5 °C – 1.5 °C) in almost the entire territory of Slovakia (except the Bratislava region and the extreme south of the Trnava and Nitra regions, where the temperature was above normal t, j, with deviations + 1.6 °C to +2.5 °C). The highest value of the average May air temperature (18.2 °C) was recorded in Hurbanov, which represents a +1.6 °C deviation from the values from the period 1991 – 2020 (+2.6 °C, 1961 – 1990, respectively +1.6 °C 1981 – 2010, the lowest value (+0.4 °C) on the Lomnicki štít, which represents a deviation of +0.6 °C from the average values from the period 1991 – 2020 (+1.4 °C, 1961 – 1990, +0 .7 °C, 1981 – 2010).

The territorial (Slovakia) **average June air temperature in 2022 (20.0 °C) was the 3rd highest at least since 1951** with a deviation of +2.3 °C from the average values from the period 1991-2020 (+3.9 °C, 1961 – 1990, or +3.2 °C, 1981 – 2010). The temperature in June 2022 was strongly above normal (+2.1 °C to +3 °C) in practically the entire territory of Slovakia, in some places above normal (deviations +1.1 °C to 2 °C) in the north of Záhoria and locally in the Nitra region compared with values from the period 1991 – 2020. The highest value of the average June air temperature (22.6 °C) was recorded in Hurbanov, which represents +2.3 °C deviation from the average values from the period 1991 – 2020 (+3.9 °C , 1961 – 1990, respectively +3.2 °C, 1981 – 2010, the lowest value (5.7 °C) on Lomnicki štít, which represents a deviation of +2.2 °C, 1991 – 2020 (+3.8 °C , 1961 – 1990, or +3.3 °C, 1981 – 2010).

The territorial (Slovakia) **average July air temperature in 2022 (20.6 °C) was the 7th highest at least since 1951** with a deviation of +1.2 °C from the average values from the period 1991-2020 (+2.9 °C, 1961 – 1990, respectively +1.7 °C, 1981 – 2010. July in 2022 was strongly above normal in terms of temperature (deviations +1.6 °C to +2.5 °C) in the southern half of the Central Slovak region, the southeast of Nitra and predominantly in the south of the Košice region. In the rest of the territory (in Bratislava, in Trnava and in the south of the Prešovské region) the temperature is above normal (deviations of +1.1 °C to +1.5 °C). In the remaining territory (especially in the northern districts of Žilinské and Prešov region) temperature normal (deviations -1.0 °C to +1.0 °C). The highest value of the average July air temperature (23.6 °C) was recorded in Želiezovce, no deviation from the values from the period 1991-2020 (no , 1961 – 1990, or does not have, 1981 – 2010, the lowest value (5.9 °C) on the Lomnicki štít, which represents +0.7 °C deviation from the average values from the period 1991 – 2020 (+2.5 °C, 1961 – 1990, or +1.3 °C, 1981 – 2010).

The territorial (Slovakia) **average August air temperature in 2022 (20.9 °C) was the 4th highest at least since 1951** with a deviation of +2.0 °C from the average values from the period 1991 – 2020 (+3.9 °C , 1961 – 1990, or +2.7 °C, 1981 – 2010). August in 2022 was strongly above-normal in temperature in almost the entire territory of Slovakia (deviations of +1.6 °C to +2.5 °C), in the extreme south of the Košice region (locally also in the Banskobystrické region) up to extremely above-normal in temperature (deviations of more than + 2.5 °C) compared to the value of the long-term average from the period 1991-2020. The highest value of the average August air temperature (23.5 °C) was recorded in Milhostov, which represents +2.8 °C deviation from the average values from the period 1991 – 2020 (+4.9 °C, 1961 – 1990, respectively +3.7 °C, 1981 – 2010, the lowest value (7.6 °C) on Lomnicky štít, which represents a deviation of +2.0 °C, 1991 – 2020 (+3.9 °C, 1961 – 1990, respectively +2.8 °C, 1981 – 2010.

The territorial (Slovakia) **average September air temperature in 2022 (13.2 °C) was the 41st highest at least since 1951** with a deviation of -0.6 °C from the average values from the period 1991-2020 (-0.1 °C, 1961 – 1990, or -0.3 °C, 1981 – 2010). September in 2022 was mostly normal in terms of temperature (deviations -1 °C to 1 °C), in some places subnormal in temperature (deviations -2.0 °C to -1.1 °C), mainly in the Bratislava region in the north of the Trnava region, locally in the Banskobystricky and Žilina regions, rarely in the Košice region compared to normal values from the period 1991-2020. The highest value of the average September air temperature (15.7 °C) was recorded in Bratislava at the airport, which represents a deviation of -0.5 °C from the average values from the period 1991 – 2020, +0.3 °C (1961 – 1990), or -0.2 °C (1981 – 2010), or in Hurbanov (15.7 °C) -0.4 °C (1991 – 2020), +0.2 °C (1961 – 1990), - 0.1 °C (1981 – 2010). The lowest value (- 0.4 °C) on Lomnicky štít, which represents a deviation of -2.1 °C (1991 – 2020), -1.6 °C (1961 – 1990), respectively. -1.6 °C (1981 – 2010).

The territorial (Slovakia) **average October air temperature in 2022 (10.6 °C) was the 5th highest at least since 1951** with a deviation of +1.9 °C from the average values from the period 1991 – 2020 (+2.3 °C, 1961 – 1990, +2.1°C, 1981 – 2010). October in 2022 was strongly above-normal in temperature (deviations +2.1 °C to +3.5 °C) especially in the Bratislava region, in the northern parts of the Trnava and Nitra regions, as well as in the Kysuce, Orava and Tatras regions, locally also in the middle Slovakia. In the rest of the territory, the temperature was above normal (deviations from +1.1 °C to +2.0 °C). The highest value of the average October air temperature (12.9 °C) was recorded in Žiharec, which represents +1.7 °C deviation from the average values from the period 1991 – 2020 (+3.0 °C, 1961 – 1990, respectively +2 .7 °C, 1981 – 2010, the lowest value (1.3 °C) on the Lomnicki štít, which represents a deviation of +2.9 °C, 1991 – 2020, respectively +3.1 °C, 1961 – 1990 and +3 .1 °C, 1981–2010.

The territorial (Slovakia) **average November air temperature in 2022 (4.8 °C) was the 21st highest at least since 1951** with a deviation of +0.8 °C from the average values from the period 1991-2020 (+1.9 °C, 1961 – 1990, respectively +1.7 °C, 1981 – 2010). November in 2022 was temperature normal (deviations -1 °C to 1 °C) in the whole territory of Slovakia only in Bratislava, Banskobystricky and locally also in the Košice region, respectively. in the Tatras above normal (deviations +1.1 °C to +2.0 °C) compared to the average values from the period 1991 – 2020. The highest value of the average November air temperature (7.0 °C) was recorded in Bratislava at the airport represents a +1.3 °C deviation from the average values from the period 1991 – 2020 (+2.6 °C, 1961 – 1990, respectively +2.1 °C, 1981 – 2010, the lowest value (-4.1 °C ) on the Lomnicki štít, which represents a deviation of +1.2 °C, 1991 – 2020 (+2.5 °C, 1961 – 1990, respectively +2.4 °C, 1981 – 2010).

The territorial (Slovakia) **average December air temperature in 2022 (0.6 °C) was the 17th highest at least since 1951** with a deviation of +1.6 °C from the average values from the period 1991 – 2020 (+2.3 °C, 1961 – 1990, or +2.1 °C, 1981 – 2010). December in 2022 was temperature normal (deviations -1 °C to +1 °C) especially in the Bratislava, Trenčín, and Žilina regions, in the northern districts of the Banskobystrické region and in the western half of the Prešov region. In the rest of the territory, the temperature was above normal (deviations from +1.6 °C to +3.0 °C) t. j. in Nitra, southern districts of the Banskobystrické region, in the west and east of the Košice and Prešovské regions. The highest value of the average December air temperature (2.6 °C) was recorded in Nitra-Janíkovka, or in Hurbanovo also 2.6°C, which in Nitra represents +1.9°C deviation from values from the period 1991-2020 (none, 1961-1990, or +2.4°C, 1981-2010, for Hurbanovo + 1.8 °C, 1991 – 2020, (+2.6 °C, 1961 – 1990, respectively +2.3 °C, 1981 – 2010).

The territorial (Slovakia) **average seasonal air temperature (winter) in 2021/2022 (0.4 °C) was the 9th highest at least since 1951** (or since 1931) with a deviation of +1.5 °C from the average values from periods 1991 – 2020 (+2.7 °C, 1961 – 1990, respectively +2.1 °C, 1981 – 2010). Winter from the season. 2021/2022 was temperature normal (deviations -1 to 1.5 °C) in Žilina, in the northern half of Banskobystrické, in Košice and in the Prešov region. The temperature was above normal in the Nitra region and in the eastern part of the Trenčín region (deviations of +1.6 °C to +2 °C), predominantly strongly above normal in the Bratislava and Trnava regions (deviations of +2.1 °C to +3 °C) compared to with values from the period 1991 – 2020. The highest value for the winter of 2021/2022 was recorded in Bratislava, in Mlynská dolina, 3.8 °C, which represents +2.7 °C deviation from the average values from the period 1991 – 2020 (none, 1961 – 1990, or none, 1981 – 2010), the lowest on Lomnicky štít -10.7 °C, which represents -0.9 °C deviation from the values from the period 1991 – 2020 (+0.1 °C, 1961 – 1990, or .-0.5 °C, 1981 – 2010).

The territorial (Slovakia)** average seasonal air temperature (spring) in 2022** (8.4 °C) was the 34th warmest since at least 1951 with a deviation of -0.6 °C from the average values from the period 1991-2020 (+0, 4 °C, 1961–1990, or -0.2 °C, 1981–2010). We recorded the highest value for the season (spring) in Bratislava at the airport of 11.3 °C, which represents a 0.0 °C deviation from the average values from the period 1991 – 2020 (+1.3 °C, 1961 – 1990, respectively +0.4 °C, 1981 – 2010), the lowest on Lomnicki štít -5.0 °C, which represents a -0.4 °C deviation from the values from the period 1991 – 2020 (+0.3 °C, 1961 – 1990 , respectively -0.1 °C, 1981 – 2010). The spring in 2022 was temperature-normal for the entire territory of Slovakia (deviations -1.5 °C to +1.3 °C), compared to values from the period 1991-2020.

The territorial (Slovakia) **average of the seasonal air temperature (summer) in 2022** (20.5 °C) was the 1st highest since at least 1931 with a deviation of +1.8 °C from the average values from the period 1991-2020 (+3.6 °C, 1961 – 1990, or +2.5 °C, 1981 – 2010). The summer of 2022 was strongly above normal in temperature (deviations from +1.7 °C to +2.7 °C) in almost the entire territory of Slovakia, except for the extreme west (Záhorie), or Kysuce and Orava compared to the values from the period 1991 – 2020. The highest value for the season (summer) was recorded in Hurbanov at 23.1 °C, which represents +1.9 °C deviation from the average values from the period 1991 – 2020 (+3 .6 °C, 1961 – 1990, respectively +2.7 °C, 1981 – 2010). The lowest on Lomnicky štít 6.4 °C, which represents +1.6 °C deviation from the values from the period 1991 – 2020 (+3.4 °C, 1961 – 1990, respectively +2.5 °C, 1981 – 2010) .

The territorial (Slovakia) **average of the seasonal air temperature (autumn) in 2022** (9.5 °C) was the 11th highest at least since 1951 with a deviation of +0.7 °C from the average values from the period 1991-2020 (+1.4 °C, 1961 – 1990, or +1.2 °C, 1981 – 2010). The autumn of 2022 was temperature-normal compared to values from the period 1991-2020 (deviations of -1 °C to +1 °C). The highest value for the season (autumn) we recorded in Bratislava at the airport was 11.8 °C, which represents +1.0 °C deviation from the average values from the period 1991 – 2020 (+1.9 °C, 1961 – 1990, respectively +1.4 °C, 1981 – 2010), the lowest on the Lomnicki štít -1.1 °C, which represents a +0.7 °C deviation from the values from the period 1991 – 2020 (+1.3 °C, 1961 – 1990, or +1.3 °C, 1981 – 2010).

The territorial (Slovakia) **average for the year (2022) as a whole (9.8 °C) was the 4th highest at least since 1951 **(or already since 1931) with a deviation of +1.0 °C from the average values from the period 1991 – 2020 (+2.1 °C, 1961 – 1990, respectively +1.5 °C, 1981 – 2010). The year 2022 (annual value of the average air temperature) compared to the values from the period 1991-2020 was temperature above normal (deviations +0.6 °C to +1.0 °C), in the southern half of Slovakia in places even strongly above normal temperature (deviations + 1.1 °C to +1.5 °C). We recorded the highest value for the period (year) 2022 in Bratislava at the airport of 12.4 °C, which represents +1.3 °C deviation from the average values from the period 1991 – 2020 (+2.6 °C, 1961 – 1990, respectively . +1.8 °C, 1981 – 2010), the lowest on Lomnicki štít -2.4 °C, which represents a +0.5 °C deviation from the values from the period 1991 – 2020 (+1.5 °C, 1961 – 1990 , or +1.0 °C, 1981 – 2010).

**Summer, tropical and 35°C+ days, ice, frost and arctic days, heat and cold waves (1951–2022)**

**In 2022, we recorded the first summer day (LD, tmax ≥ 25 °C) **on the territory of Slovakia on May 3 (in western Slovakia (Hurbanovo and Veľké Ripňany), the last on September 15 (mainly in the southern districts of Slovakia). The longest we recorded a period of consecutive summer days in Slovakia from 13/07 to 31/08/2022 in a total number of 50 (Orechová). The maximum number of days when we recorded a summer day at at least 1 weather station reached 123. The most summer days we recorded in the south of central Slovakia in Dudincie (107), which represents an increase of 15-16 days compared to the value from the period 1991-2020.

**In 2022, we recorded the first tropical day (TD, tmax ≥ 30 °C) **on the territory of Slovakia on May 12 (in the southern districts of Slovakia), the last on September 8, 2022 (in western Slovakia in Gabčíkovo). We observed the longest period of consecutive tropical days in the west of the country in Dolné Plachtincie (13) in the period 22 June - 04 July 2022. The maximum number of days when we recorded a tropical day at at least 1 meteorological station reached 75. The most we recorded tropical days in Dolné Plachtincie (53), which represents an increase of 23 days compared to the value from the period 1991-2020.

**In 2022, we recorded the first day (TD35, tmax ≥ 35 °C)** on the territory of Slovakia on June 27 (in western Slovakia in Králova pri Senci and Mužla), the last on August 28, 2022 (in eastern Slovakia in Orechová). The maximum number of days when at least 1 meteorological station recorded a day with 35 °C or more reached 26. We observed the most days with a maximum daily temperature of 35 °C or more in Dolné Plachtincie in the south of central Slovakia (18). We recorded the longest series of consecutive days in Dolné Plachtincie (5) on July 19 - July 23, 2022.

**In 2022, we recorded 265 frosty days (tmin < 0 °C)** throughout Slovakia, if we do not take into account locations above 1500 m above sea level so there were 186. We recorded the most frosty days (tmin < 0 °C) on Lomnicki štít (258, which is 10 days less than the average for the period 1991-2020, on Chopek 199, which is 18 days less and on Skalnatom Plese (170, which is 8 days less). Frost days have occurred in Slovakia since the beginning of the year, even at altitudes below 1500 m. The longest period of frost days in Slovakia occurred in the highest places (horstva) and it lasted 131 days on the Lomnicky štít in the period from 01.01.-11.05.2022 (it should be noted that the period itself started already in 2021), in positions below 1500 m above sea level it lasted 82 days and that in the period 06.01.-28.05. 03. 2022 in Telgárt.

**In 2022, we recorded 111 severe frost days (tmin < -10 °C)** in Slovakia, if we do not take into account locations above 1500 m above sea level so there were 49 of them. The most on Lomnický štít (108, in positions below 1500 m a.s.l. on Štrbské Pleso (32). The longest period of severely frosty days on the territory of Slovakia in positions above 1500 m a.s.l. lasted 35 days (Lomnický štít) in the period 05. 01 – 08 February 2022.

**In 2022, we recorded 179 ice days (tmax <0 °C)** in Slovakia, not taking into account locations above 1500 m above sea level so there were 82. We measured the most ice days (tmax <0 °C) on Lomnicki štít (177, which is 2-3 days less than the average for 1991-2020), on Skalnat pleso 67, which is 9 days less), at Chopek 132, which is 7 less). In locations below 15,000 m above sea level. m. at Kojšovská Hola (70, does not have a normal from 1991-2020) or at Štrbské Pleso 55, which is 7 less. Ice days have occurred in Slovakia since the beginning of the year at altitudes below 1500 m. m. from 06.01.2022, the longest period of consecutive such days in the territory of Slovakia in 2022 below this height limit lasted 34 days (06.01. – 08.02.2022). From the point of view of individual meteorological stations, we recorded the longest period of consecutive ice days on Lomnické štít (80) in the period 01.01.-21.03.2022 (however, it started already in 2021) and in positions below 1500 m above sea level. m. on Kojšovská Hola (20) in the period 15.01.-08.02.2022, or at Štrbské Pleso (9) in the period 01.26 - 02.03.2022.

**In 2022, we recorded 39 arctic days (tmax < -10 °C)**. We recorded the most arctic days on Lomnicki štít (37, which is 1-2 days more than the average for the period 1991-2020), in positions below 1500 m above sea level. m. did not occur. The longest consecutive period of frosty days in Slovakia in 2022 lasted 8 days (February 27 – March 5, 2022), in the case of locations below 1500 m above sea level. m. did not occur. From the point of view of individual meteorological stations, we recorded the longest period of consecutive arctic days on Lomnické štít (8) (February 26 – March 5, 2022) and in positions below 1500 m above sea level. m. did not occur.

**The annual air temperature in 2022 in Hurbanovo** was 12.2 °C. Since 1951, the annual air temperature in Hurbanov represents a statistically significant upward trend in a linear trend until 2022 (an increase of 2.2 °C), while the significantly cold years were 1954 – 1956, 1963, 1965, 1978, 1980, 1985, on the contrary, significantly the warm years were 2000, 2007, 2014 - 2015, 2018 - 2020 and 2022. We recorded the largest negative difference in the deviation of the average annual air temperature in Hurbanov in 1956 (-2.8 °C compared to the normal 1991 - 2020) and the largest positive difference in in 2019 (+1.2 °C).

**The annual air temperature in 2022 in Liptovský Hrádok** was 8.0 °C. Since 1951, the annual air temperature in Liptovský Hrádek has shown a statistically significant upward trend in a linear trend until 2022 (an increase of 2.3 °C), while the significantly cold years were 1955 – 1956, 1962 – 1963, 1965, 1978, 1980, 1985. On the contrary Significantly warm years were in Liptovský Hrádek in 2000, 2007 – 2008, 2014 – 2015, 2018 – 2019 and 2022. The largest negative difference in the deviation of the average annual air temperature in Liptovský Hrádek was recorded in 1956 (-2.5 °C compared to the normal 1991 – 2020) and the largest positive difference in in 2014 (+1.7 °C).

**Development of annual air temperature (1951 – 2022)**