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Renewable energy sources

Last update of indicator 16.12.2021

Indicator definition

The indicator describes the evolution of the total share of energy from renewable energy sources (RES) in the gross final energy consumption and the sectoral shares (electricity generation, heating and cooling and transport) towards the RES targets for 2020 and 2030.

Units

%

Metadata

Related policy documents and targets

Greener Slovakia - Strategy of the Environmental Policy of the Slovak Republic until 2030 (The Envirostrategy 2030) (2019)
Energy priorities:
By 2020, criteria for the sustainable use of all renewable resources will be developed. All external costs will be included in energy prices. Legislative and financial support will focus on resources that meet sustainability criteria and do not have negative effects on the environment. At the same time, transparency and public awareness of energy and energy projects will increase. The share of renewable energy sources in production, energy consumption and transport, energy savings and the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions will be in accordance with the European and Integrated National Energy and Climate Plan 2021 – 2030

Integrated National Energy and Climate Plan 2021 – 2030 (2019)
This plan updates the current Energy policy of 2014.
Strategic goal of the energy policy of the Slovak Republic: to achieve a competitive low-carbon energy industry sector ensuring the secure and efficient supply of all forms of energy at affordable prices, and taking customer protection and sustainable development into account. The Slovak energy policy is significantly influenced by EU goals, at the same time emphasizing the optimal use of domestic energy sources and low-carbon technologies, such as RES and nuclear energy. 

Basic pillars: energy security, energy efficiency, competitiveness and sustainability of energy and its decarbonisation.

National targets for 2030:
Non-ETS greenhouse gas emission reductions (as of 2005): 20%
Total share of RES: 19.2%
RES share in transport: 14%
Energy efficiency: 30.3%
Electrical interconnection: 52%

Low-Carbon Development Strategy of the Slovak Republic until 2030 with a View to 2050 (2020)
The strategy aims to provide a comprehensive long-term (30-year) strategic outlook for the transition to a low-carbon economy, which will be completed by achieving climate neutrality by 2050. To achieve this goal, measures have been identified for the energy sector, including additional ones, which should contribute to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions by 90% compared to 1990 and achieve Slovakia's climate neutrality by 2050.
The decarbonisation scenarios:
Decarbonisation 2: Balanced targets for renewables and energy efficiency
Decarbonisation 3: Focus on renewables policies, with a strong advent of biomass in electricity generation as well as heating and cooling
Decarbonisation 4: Achieving the goal of renewables through electricity, leading to higher penetration of onshore wind farms and solar photovoltaics

Update of the Concept of Utilization of Hydropower Potential of Watercourses of the Slovak Republic until 2030 (2017)
The objective of the updated concept is to evaluate the possibilities of fulfilling the strategic objectives in the field of electricity production from renewable energy sources (from the use of the energy of water streams), set by the European and national legislation, taking into account the fulfillment of ecological and environmental objectives according to the European and national legislation and international conventions to which the Slovak Republic is bound.

Energy Security Strategy of the Slovak Republic (2008) 
Main objectives:
Increasing the use of RES, in particular of hydropower, biomass, geothermal energy and solar energy.
Introducing new technologies, innovations and best available techniques in the energy sector.
 
National Energy from RES Action Plan (2010)
Overall national goal:
To achieve a 14% share of energy from RES in 2020, representing 1 572 ktoe (66 PJ) energy from RES.
Sectoral goals:
Heat and cold production: 7, 6% share of RES in 2010; 14, 6 % share in 2020.
Electricity production: 19, 1% share of RES in 2010, 24, 0% share in 2020.
Transport: 4, 1% share of RES in 2010; 10, 0% share in 2020.
 
Development of Electricity Production from Small Renewable Energy Sources in Slovakia - Concept (2013)
This material describes the legislative possibilities of financial support for the development of small energy sources, intended to cover households' own consumption without negatively affecting the stability of distribution systems and with the effect of financial savings for both small-scale operators and distribution companies. Support mechanisms are applicable to all types of renewable sources with an installed capacity of up to 10 kW suitable for households, for example photovoltaic panels and small wind turbines, photothermic collectors, heat pumps and biomass heating boilers.
 

Key question

What is the development of the share of renewable energy in gross final energy consumption in relation to the targets set for 2020 and 2030?

Key messages

  • Over the whole period from 2005 to 2019, the share of energy from RES in the SR increased from 6.7% in 2005 to 16.9% in 2019, which is a positive signal in meeting energy policy priorities and energy targets. In the year-on-year comparison of 2018-2019, there has been a significant increase in the share of RES (5.00% increase), which has contributed to the fact that the SR is ahead of schedule in meeting the commitment for 2020 to achieve a 14% share of energy from RES. 
  • The share of energy from RES has increased in all sectors over the period 2005 – 2019. In 2019, the share of energy from RES was 21.9% in the electricity generation sector, 19.7% in the heating and cooling sector and 8.3% in the transport sector. Similarly, in the year-on-year comparison of 2018 – 2019, there was an increasing or constant trend (electricity generation sector) in the share of RES in all sectors. 
  • Emphasis is placed on the development of hydropower (in the electricity generation sector) and the potential of biomass (in the heating and cooling sector).
     
Change since 1990 Change since 2005 Last year-on-year change Progress in achieving of concrete defined objective
udaje nie su k dispozici Pozitivny trend Pozitivny trend Pozitivny trend
Indicator is evaluated since 2005. Since 2005, the share of energy from RES has more than doubled. The share of energy produced from RES as a whole and in individual sectors increased year-on-year. The 2020 target for the share of RES has already been reached in 2019. This was mainly due to the increase in the share in the last year. Achieving the target in 2030 will be conditional on the consistent implementation of all measures taken set out in the Integrated National Energy and Climate Plan for 2021 – 2030.

 

Summary assessment

 

 

Detailed assessment

Renewables form an important part of a country's energy mix because they present an alternative to fossil fuels which contributes to reducing greenhouse gas emissions, diversifying energy supplies, and reducing dependence on unreliable and volatile fossil fuel markets, especially oil and gas, since the energy produced from RES comes from within the country's own territory. For some technologies (e.g. water energy, solar energy, wind energy, etc.) there are even no emissions during operation. Increasing the share of RES contributes to the reduction of environmental pressures and thus also to reduction of negative impacts on human health.

In spite of all these benefits, the use of RES brings about certain risks. The most significant of these arises from the very nature of RES. Solar and wind energy production is characterized by the fluctuation of production, which negatively affects the security and reliability of the electricity system. Increasing electricity costs are another form of risk. Apart from these there are also negative environmental impacts, which may adversely affect the aesthetics of the landscape, various impacts on habitats and ecosystems, watercourses and the like. These negative impacts can be minimized by carefully selecting the location of RES installation and by considering all the potential negative impacts of RES technology. Nonetheless, the benefits outweigh the potential negative impacts and the use of RES is amongst the priorities of the Slovak Energy Policy.
 

EU legislation on the promotion of renewable energy has evolved significantly over the last 15 years. 
 
The 2009 Renewable Energy Directive stipulated that 20% of the EU's energy consumption must come from RES by 2020. In addition, all Member States were obliged to achieve a 10% share of RES in transport. In addition to the common target, the Directive set binding national targets for the overall share of RES in gross final energy consumption for individual EU countries, taking into account their baseline situation and overall RES potential. The target for Slovakia has been set at 14%. Member States were required to prepare National Renewable Energy Action Plans (NREAPs) in which they set their national targets for the share of renewable energy in three sectors: electricity generation, heating and cooling, and transport. Progress towards national targets was measured every two years when EU Member States published their RES progress reports.

Act No. 309/2009 Coll. on the Promotion of Renewable Energy Sources and High Efficiency Combined on the promotion of renewable energy sources and high efficiency cogeneration was approved in the Slovak Republic in 2009 to support the production of electricity from RES. This Act has improved the functioning of the electricity market in the RES sector and created a stable business environment. It secured a long-term guarantee of feed-in tariffs for 15 years and also set the direction for electricity generation from RES by favouring the construction of small and decentralised plants. The Act also guarantees priority transmission and priority distribution of electricity from RES. Since 2014, a change in legislation has significantly simplified the process of connecting a small source up to 10 kW for households that cover a large part of their energy consumption with the electricity they generate. 

In 2018, the revised Renewable Energy Directive came into force as part of the Clean Energy for All Europeans package to help meet emission reduction commitments under the Paris Agreement. The Directive sets a new binding EU target in the area of RES energy for 2030 of at least 32% of final energy consumption and includes a clause allowing for an upward adjustment of this share by 2023 and an increased target of 14% for the share of renewable fuels in transport by 2030.

The Slovak Republic has signed up to the commitment to achieve carbon neutrality by 2050. This led to the adoption of the Integrated National Energy and Climate Plan, which updates the Energy Policy of the Slovak Republic from 2014 and defines targets until 2030. The optimal use of RES is one of the key factors for achieving a low-carbon economy, and emphasis will be given to the development of RES, especially in heat production. The projected target for Slovakia for 2030 is 19.2%.

In December 2019, the European Green Deal was adopted as the overarching framework for EU clean energy policy. This is a new growth strategy which aims to make Europe the world's first climate-neutral continent in the world. All this in a fair, resource-efficient, cost-effective and competitive way. 

Energy production and its use accounts for more than 75% of greenhouse gas emissions in the EU. Decarbonising the EU energy system is therefore crucial for achieving the 2030 climate targets and the EU's long-term strategy to achieve carbon neutrality by 2050.

In July 2021, as part of the implementation of the European Green Deal package, the Commission published a new legislative package on climate and energy entitled "Fit for 55": meeting the EU's 2030 climate target on the road to climate neutrality. The package represents one of the most comprehensive sets of proposals on climate and energy ever put forward by the Commission. Among other things, it will contribute to the development of the clean energy system over the next decade by stimulating innovation, investment and creating new market demand in the EU, while ensuring a socially just transition. The package also includes a proposal to revise the RES Directive in order to align its RES energy targets with the new climate ambitions. In order to reach the 2030 target, the Directive proposes to increase the overall binding target from the current 32% to a new level of 40% RES energy in the EU energy mix.  These efforts will be complemented by indicative national contributions showing how each Member State should contribute to achieving the collective objective. The post – 2030 energy policy framework is currently under negotiation.

The share of energy from RES has slowly increased since 2005. As this is a share, the increasing share did not always reflect the actual increase in RES energy, expressed as gross total RES consumption, or gross final RES consumption in the case of the share of RES energy in the sectors. Over the period 2005 – 2019, the total share of energy produced from RES increased to 16.9%. Slovakia is thus on track to meet the target of a 14% share of RES in final energy consumption in 2020 whereas the share of RES was already higher in 2019. Meanwhile, the share of RES stagnated around 10 – 12% between 2010 and 2018 and meeting the national commitment seemed unlikely.

This was mainly due to the year-on-year increase, where the share of RES increased by 5.0% in 2018 compared to the previous year. This overall increase reflected a significant increase in the share of RES in the heating and cooling sector, where gross biomass consumption almost doubled. While in 2018 renewables accounted for 10.6% of heat and cooling production, in 2019 it was already 19.7%. On the other hand, the share of RES in the other two monitored sectors increased relatively less significantly: in the transport sector by 1.3 percentage points to 8.3% and in electricity generation by 0.5 percentage points to 21.9%.

The significant increase in the heating and cooling sector was not caused by a change in methodology, which remained unchanged, but due to refinement of the data reported. This was achieved through the cooperation of the Statistical Office of the Slovak Republic with the Slovak Hydrometeorological Institute. New data on biomass consumption in households, which was not previously available and therefore not included in previous years, have been included in the statistics. The Slovak Republic was very likely to meet the 14% target in previous years as well. However, incorrect data was sent to Eurostat which, in addition to biomass consumption in households, also did not include, for example, energy produced by heat pumps in households. 
 

The increase in the share of energy from RES is a positive signal for achieving the RES targets. The increasing diversity of RES, in particular solar energy, in recent years is another positive aspect. Nevertheless, hydropower plants have the largest share of electricity production from all RES and the amount of electricity produced from RES in Slovakia is largely dependent on suitable hydroenergy conditions.

Contact

Ing. Slávka Štroffeková, SAŽP, slavka.stroffekova@sazp.sk

Metadata

A renewable energy source is a non-fossil energy source whose energy potential is permanently restored by natural processes or human activities, and includes the following: hydropower, solar energy, wind energy, geothermal energy, biomass together with all its products, biogas, landfill gas, sewage treatment plant gas, biomethane.

 

The share of energy from renewables sources represents the ratio between gross final consumption of energy from RES and the gross final consumption of energy from all sources. It is expressed as a percentage.

 

The gross final consumption of energy from renewable sources is calculated as the sum of:

●        gross final consumption of electricity from renewable energy sources

●        gross final consumption of energy from renewable sources for heating and cooling

●        final consumption of energy from renewable sources in transport.

 

Gross final consumption of energy is defined as energy commodities delivered for energy purposes to for industry, transport, households, services, agriculture, forestry and fisheries, including the consumption of electricity and heat by the energy branch for electricity and heat production and including the losses of electricity and heat in distribution and transmission.

 

The share of electricity from RES is defined as the ratio between gross final consumption of electricity from RES and gross final consumption of electricity.

 

Gross final consumption of electricity from RES represents the amount of electricity generated from RES, with the exception of electricity from pumped-storage plants that had been pumped back to the upper reservoir.

 

Gross final electricity consumption comprises total gross electricity generation from all fuels plus electricity imports, minus exports.

 

The share of energy for heating and cooling from RES is defined as the ratio between the gross final consumption of energy for heating and cooling from RES and gross final consumption of energy for heating and cooling from all sources.  

 

Gross final energy consumption for heating and cooling from RES is calculated as the sum of the amount of energy for district heating and cooling from RES and the consumption of other forms of energy from RES in industry, households, agriculture, forestry and fisheries for heating, cooling and operation.

 

The share of renewable energy sources in transport is expressed as the ratio between the amount of renewable sources of energy used in transport and the total amount of energy used in transport.

 

Final consumption of renewable energy sources in transport presents all forms of renewable sources of energy consumed in all forms of transport.

 

Final consumption of energy in transport present the consumption of petrol, diesel, biofuels consumed in road and rail transport and electricity.

 

Indicative trajectory for energy from RES is part of the National RES action plan and sets the estimated growth in the yearly use of RES to reach the 2020 target.

 

Methodology:

The indicator describes the share of energy from renewable sources of energy and the indicative trajectory to reach the 2020 target, the share of energy from RES in heating and cooling, electricity production and transport, including the share of individual technologies in the production of RES in the given sectors.

 

The data used in the calculation are the result of annual processing of statistical reports of the Statistical Office of the Slovak Republic and are obtained from producers, importers, exporters and traders of fuels and energy. Usage data is obtained from the entities consuming the different types of fuels and energy, suppliers and surcharges. The collection of data is provided for by Regulation (EC) No. 1099/2008 On energy statistics.

 

The shares were calculated in accordance with the requirements of Directive 2009/28/EC and the Eurostat methodology (Regulation (EC) No. 1009/2008). The calculation of hydropower and wind energy is done in accordance with standardization regulations.

 

The normalization of hydropower production, 15-year average of electricity produced from water is taken into account as it eliminates annual fluctuations in hydropower production caused by hydrological fluctuations. In hybrid facilities, which combined RES and conventional sources, only the part of energy from RES is taken into account.

 

Gross final consumption of energy from renewable sources, total and well as in individual sectors, is expressed in ktoe units.

 

The total actual contribution of individual renewable energy technologies to the share of energy from RES in individual sectors presents the amount of energy produced from each source. It is energy: hydropower; geothermal, solar, tides, waves, ocean; wind and biomass. It is expressed in GWh (electrical energy) and ktoe (heating, cooling and transport).