Petrol and diesel and to considerable amount compressed natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas are among the most widespread motor fuels.
is used predominantly in spark ignition engines for road motor vehicles which are equipped with a catalytic converter and controlled by a lambda-probe. The following types of petrol, differing in octane numbers, are available on the market NATURAL 91 – NORMAL, NATURAL 95 – SUPER, NATURAL 98 SUPER PLUS.
is used as a fuel for internal combustion diesel engines. Depending on the season, diesel fuel is divided in accordance with the STN EN 590 requirement as transitional summer and winter.
The development in the consumption of petrol and diesel
is variable. Between 2005 and 2017, the consumption of petrol decreased by 13.8% in spite of a minimum year-on-year decrease.
The consumption of diesel fuels a rather volatile character during the assessed period. Between 2005 and 2011, an increase in its consumption was recorded, which could have been caused by a slight recovery in the economy and the corresponding increase in the performance of freight and passenger transport. Diesel consumption was at the same level, without any significant fluctuations since 2011, except for 2016, when the year-on-year increase was 14.9% compared to 2015. The increase in diesel consumption between 2005 and 2017 was 19.2%.
Motor fuels liquefied petroleum gas - from a short - and mid-term perspective, liquefied propane-butane (LPG)
and compressed natural gas (CNG)
are a cheaper and more environmentally-friendly alternative to petrol and diesel. However it should be emphasized that these are fossil fuels, whose production is closely linked to the extraction and processing of oil, originating in non-renewable energy sources.
LPG consumption showed an upward trend during the 2005-2018 period with only minimal year-on-year increases and decreases. Since 2005, there was an 6.3 % increase despite a year-on-year increase by 4.29% between 2017 and 2018.
In the assessed period, CNG consumption had a significant increase until 2013. After this year there were only year-on-year declines. CNG consumption in 2016 increased by 54, 7% compared to 2005.
Liquefied natural gas (LNG)
- produced from natural gas in a liquefaction process, during which the gas is extremely supercooled - can be used as another substitute fuel. Its advantage is its liquid state and hence also easier transport. Up to 3.5 times more fuel can be obtained when converted to its gaseous state, which in practice also means a longer range (when compared to CNG). LNG as a fuel is competing with CNG by offering a longer range and a cleaner fuel. Its disadvantages are the lack of refuelling stations (there is only one testing station in Slovakia), more complicated production technology, storage (need for special tanks and very low temperature). In case of its heating, fuel evaporation must be ensured in case of a longer outage. Despite these disadvantages, LNG is becoming increasingly popular in Europe. LNG is mainly fuelling buses, vans and smaller trucks.
are one of the most discussed topics in the field of motor fuels. Given the many positive impacts of their use, their development is in the interest of all developed nations of the world. The promotion of their production and utilization is already enshrined in the legislation of the EU.
The obligation to introduce biofuels to the domestic market in 2017 was laid down in Section 14a (1). 1, par. 1 (g) of the Renewable Energy Sources Act, as amended for the reference period (hereinafter referred to as the "RES Act"). The benchmark value was 5.8%, while the minimum content of biofuels in individuals types of fuels was laid down in Annex no. 1 of the RES Act. This lead to an obligation for the businesses concerned to introduce such fuels on the market, which corresponded to the benchmark value, calculated as the total energy content of the overall amount of motor fuels related to its business activities for 2017. The RES Act sets precise benchmarks up until 2020.
The actual fulfilment of the 2017 benchmark value is expressed as 5.99% of the energy content of the total amount of petrol and diesel.
First-generation biofuels, as a low-percentage blends of biofuels with hydrocarbon fuels, were used on the Slovak market and distributed via existing infrastructure (distribution system and points of sale).