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Endangered Species

Last update of indicator 20.12.2021

Indicator definition

The indicator evaluates endangerment of plants species (lower and higher) and animals (invertebrates and vertebrates) which represents the proportion of species listed in categories of endangerment of CR (critically endangered), EN (endangered), VU (vulnerable) according to IUCN in the relevant red lists of species out of the total number of known species.

Units

%

Metadata

Related policy documents and targets

Greener Slovakia – Strategy of the Environmental Policy of the Slovak Republic until 2030 (Envirostrategy 2030) (2019)

2.1 Stopping the Loss of Biodiversity

  • Conditions will be created for minimising of the negative impacts of anthropogenic activity, including the impact of climate change which are causing a loss of diversity of plant and animal species and a loss of biotopes, and the enforceability of laws related to nature protection will improve.
  • Until 2030, at a minimum, 15% of degraded ecosystems in Slovakia will be regenerated such as those above the timber-line, but especially salt marshes, wetlands, peatlands, alluvial forests that are significantly impacted by human activity.
  • A program of regeneration of wetlands and their ecosystem services based on participation of all concerned parties will be implemented.
  • In collaboration with owners and users and using all available resources there will be an improvement in quality of protection and regeneration of forests, meadows and pastures which represent ecosystems with the highest level of biodiversity, and creation of agroforestry systems will be supported.
  • State institutions, in collaboration with academic institutions, expert organisations and nongovernmental organisations will regularly update the red lists of endangered species and biotopes and recommend measures for their saving.
  • On a national level, in regards to endangered species trade, with regard to application practice, new regulation will be adopted and problems with the implementation and enforcement of current national precepts of law will be accounted for.
  • Utilisation of waning, vulnerable and migrant species of protected animals will be carried out in accordance with international obligations of SR.

 

The updated National Biodiversity Strategy up to 2020 (2014)

Key goal: Stopping of biodiversity loss and degradation of ecosystems and their services in SR until 2020, securing of regeneration of biodiversity and ecosystems within an appropriate scope and increasing of our contribution towards preventing of biodiversity loss on a global scale.

 

Action plan for implementation of measures resulting from the updated National Biodiversity Strategy up to 2020 (2014)

Area A Nature protection
Objective A.1:
Achieving the EU´s objective: up to 2020, to stop the deterioration of the status of all species and habitats, and achieve a significant and measurable improvement in their status so that (compared to the current assessment) by 100% more habitat assessments and by 50% more species assessments under the Habitats Directive would show improvement in the conservation status, and by 50% more species assessment within the Birds Directive would show a secure or improved status.
Measure A.1.1 Consistently implement the Birds Directive and the Habitats Directive, adopted resolutions and decisions of international conventions, organizations and programs and improved national legislation in order to strengthen the protection of species and habitats and also link the network of protected areas on a scientific basis
Proposed tasks:
4. Ensuring creation and updates of red lists of endangered species
6. Preparing, more specifically, updating of programmes for saving of endangered species of plants and animals and implementing measures, including transfer and restitution of species into appropriate locations
7. Ensuring revitalisation of the most endangered biotopes (especially sands, salt marshes, xerothermic grasslands)

 

Key question

What is the state of endangerment of species in the SR?

Key messages

  • In the SR currently there are 1,047 of endangered lower plant species (13.6%), whereby almost half of bryophytes and almost a quarter of lichens are threatened. Among higher plants there are 527 endangered species (14.6%).
  • An updated red list of bryophytes was published in 2020: Mišíková, Katarína, Katarína Godovičová, Pavel Širka a Rudolf Šoltés. Checklist and red list of mosses (Bryophyta) of Slovakia. Biologia. 2020, 75(1), 21-37. ISSN 0006-3088.
  • The highest amount of critically endangered species of flora in the SR come from biotopes that are globally endangered across all Central Europe (peatlands, wetlands, floodplain meadows, salt marches, sands). The basic reason of endangerment of plants is, in particular, direct or indirect destruction of these locations, whereby in some places we do not yet know the true reasons.
  • According to latest red lists there are in total 1,636 endangered invertebrates (6.6%) and 100 taxons of vertebrates (24.2%), while their state of endangerment is increasingly more significant.
  • With all animals the priority requirement lies with the securing of their biotope protection, that is, adequately large and preserved areas in which they can naturally live and reproduce.

 

Summary assessment

Number of plant taxa – total and threatened

Source: SNC SR
Note:
Taxon is a taxonomic unit in the biological system of classification with indeterminate value, for example species, genus, family, and so on.
Data in % indicates the proportion of threatened taxa in the total number of taxa;
Threatened only species included in IUCN categories CR, EN and VU;
IUCN categories: CR critically endangered taxon, EN endangered taxon, VU vulnerable taxon;
Data per 2020


Number of vertebrate species – total and threatened

Source: SNC SR
Note:
Birds only nesting (total 211 species of nesting birds were assessed);
Threatened only species included in IUCN categories CR, EN and VU;
Data in % indicates the proportion of threatened species in the total number of species;

Data per 2020

 

Detailed assessment

Plant species

The state of endangerment of lower plant species in SR is evaluated according to the red list from 2001 (Feráková, V., Maglocký, Š. & Marhold, K., 2001: Červený zoznam papraďorastov a semenných rastlín Slovenska (december 2001) – In: Baláž, D., Marhold, K. & Urban, P. eds., Červený zoznam rastlín a živočíchov Slovenska, Ochr. Prír. 20 (Suppl.): 48-81).

An updated red list of bryophytes was published in 2020: Mišíková, Katarína, Katarína Godovičová, Pavel Širka a Rudolf Šoltés. Checklist and red list of mosses (Bryophyta) of Slovakia. Biologia. 2020, 75(1), 21-37. ISSN 0006-3088.


The state of endangerment of higher plant and fernwort species in SR is evaluated according to an updated red list from 2015 (Eliáš P. jr., Dítě D., Kliment J., Hrivnák R. & Feráková V., 2015. Red List of ferns and flowering plants of Slovakia).

Development of versions of red lists:

  1. The first complex list of endangered plants in Slovakia was compiled by a team led by Štefan Maglocký. After incorporation of the comments of botanists and conservators the updated version was published in 1983 (Maglocký 1983).
  2. The second updated issue compiled in line with the IUCN methodology came out ten years later (Maglocký a Feráková 1993).
  3. The third version of the red list was published as a part of a list of higher and lower plants of Slovakia (Marhold a Hindák 1998).
  4. The fourth version was published in 2001, when a red list of plants was published according to which there were 2861 plant taxons in various categories of endangerment (previously missing groups were added), that is, in total 22.7%.  From this, the proportion of endangered species of higher plants was 30.3% for lower plants this was 11.4% (IUCN categories CR, EN, VU).
  5. The fifth version – Updated red list of flowerers and sporers in Slovakia (2015) – includes 1218 taxons, which represents approximately 34% of the 3619 original species and floral archaeophytes of Slovakia. Endangered are (within CR, EN and VU categories) 527 species of higher plants (14.6%).

80 taxons (7%) were not confirmed in the area of Slovakia (66 regionally extinct, 17 probably regionally extinct). The remaining group is represented by 347 taxons rated as near threatened (NT, 29%), 162 taxons classed as least concern (LC, 13%), 91 taxons as data deficient (DD, 7%) an 8 taxons (1%) were classed as NE (not evaluated) and NA (non-applicable). The fifth version of the Red list included 27 listed taxons novel for the Slovak flora and 14 extinct and missing taxons were re-confirmed for flora.

 

Year Version* Number of species in the SR Ex Endangered (IUCN categories) Ed Proportion of threatened (%)***
CR EN VU LR DD
1998 III. 3,352 37 124 273 350 223 47 127 22.3
2001 IV. 3,352 73 243 282 378 247 46 220 26.9
2001 IV.** 3,352 77 266 320 430 285 50 220 30.3
2015 V. 3,619 80 155 171 201 509 99 220 14.6

Source: SNC SR
* Version (issue) of overviews of endangered plants in Slovakia
** amended version
*** threatened – species in CR, EN and VU categories



Number of plant taxons and their endangerment (as of 2020)

  Total number of taxons EX Endangered (IUCN categories) Ed Proportion of threatened (%)
World (global estimate) SR CR EN VU LR DD
Cyanophytes and Algae 50,000 3,008 0 7 80 196 0 0 0 9.4
Lower fungi 80,000 1,295 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Higher fungi 20,000 2,469 5 7 39 49 87 90 0 3.8
Lichens 20,000 1,508 88 140 48 169 114 14 0 23.7
Bryophytes 20,000 699 0 47 75 190 0 51 0 44.6
Lower plants 190,000 8,979 93 201 242 604 201 155 0 11.66
Vascular plants 250,000 3,619 80 155 171 201 509 99 220 14.56

Source: SNC SR
 

Animal species

So far, in Slovakia 28,000 of animal species have been described, while the state of their endangerment is increasingly more significant. With all animals the priority lies withthe securing of their biotope protection, that is, adequately large and preserved areas in which they can naturally live and multiply.
In the 90-ties, red lists that were valid at that time contained 466 endangered species of invertebrates and 153 species of vertebrates.


The overview of the development of vertebrates endangerment


2001 – 2007
 
World 1)
SR
EX
CR
EN
VU
LR
DD
NE
Threatened
(CR-EN-VU)
%
Lampreys
-
4
-
4
-
-
-
-
-
4
100.0
Pisces
25,000
79
6
7
8
1
22
2
-
16
20.3
Amphibians
4,950
18
-
-
3
5
10
-
-
8
44.4
Reptiles
7,970
12
-
1
-
4
6
-
-
5
41.7
Birds2)
9,946
219
2
7
23
19
47
4
19
49
22.4
Mammals
4,763
90
2
2
6
12
27
15
4
20
22.2
 
2008 – 2012
Taxons
Number of taxons
IUCN categories of endangerment
Threatened

(CR-EN-VU)

%
Group
World1)
SR
EX
CR
EN
VU
LR
DD
NE
Lampreys
-
4
-
-
1
1
1
 
 
2
50.0
Pisces3)
25,000
79
4
-
6
9
40
-
-
15
19.0
Amphibians
4,950
18
-
-
3
5
10
-
-
8
44.4
Reptiles
7,970
12
-
1
-
4
6
-
-
5
41.7
Birds2)
9,946
219
2
7
23
19
47
4
19
49
22.4
Mammals
4,763
90
2
2
6
12
27
15
4
20
22.2
 
2013
Taxons
Number of taxons
IUCN categories of endangerment
Threatened

(CR-EN-VU)

%
Group
World1)
SR
EX
CR
EN
VU
LR
DD
NE
Lampreys
-
4
-
-
1
1
1
 
 
2
50.0
Pisces
25,000
79
4
-
6
9
40
-
-
15
19.0
Amphibians
4,950
18
-
-
3
5
10
-
-
8
44.4
Reptiles
7,970
12
-
1
-
4
6
-
-
5
41.7
Mammals
4,763
90
2
2
6
12
27
15
4
20
22.2
 
 
 
RE
CR
EN
VU
NT
LC
 
 
Birds4)
9,946
211
4
10
24
17
24
132
51
24.2
 
2014 – 2015
Taxons
Number of taxons
EX
IUCN categories of endangerment
NE
Threatened

(CR-EN-VU)

%
World 1)
SR
CR
EN
VU
LR
DD
Lampreys
-
4
0
4
0
0
0
0
0
4
100.0
Pisces
25,000
79
4
0
6
6
40
0
0
12
15.2
Amphibians
4,950
18
0
0
3
5
10
0
0
8
44.4
Reptiles
7,970
12
0
1
0
4
6
0
0
5
41.7
Mammals
4,763
90
2
2
6
12
27
15
4
20
22.2
 
 
 
RE
CR
EN
VU
NT
LC
 
 
Birds
9,946
211
4
10
24
17
24
132
51
24.2
 
Source: SNC SR
The changes compared to the previous period are marked in color.

1) Source: UNEP – GBO
2) only nesters – out of the total of 341 birds of Slovakia only all of the 219 nester species have been assessed
3) Endangerment of fish is evaluated according to – Koščo, J., Holčík, J., 2008: Anotovaný červený zoznam mihúľ a rýb Slovenska – Verzia 2007, s. 119 – 132. In: Lusk, S., Lusková, V. (eds.), Biodiverzita ichtyofauny ČR (VII), Ústav biologie obratlovců AV ČR, v.v.i., Brno
4) Endangerment of birds is evaluated according to the red list of birds from 2013 (Demko, Krištín, Puchala: Červený zoznam vtákov Slovenska), that is, according to the latest criteria (IUCN 2001, ver. 3.1); only nesters are evaluated
IUCN categories:

EX - Extinct taxon
RE** - Regionally extinct taxon
CR - Critically endangered taxon
EN - Endangered taxon
VU - Vulnerable taxon
LR - Least concern taxon
NT** - near threatened taxon
LC** - Least concern taxon
DD - Data deficient taxon
NE - Non-evaluated taxon
** a newer version of categorisation


The current state of endangerment of particular animal species in the SR is evaluated according to the latest published red list from 2001 (Baláž, D., Marhold, K. & Urban, P. eds., Červený zoznam rastlín a živočíchov Slovenska, Ochr. Prír. 20 (Suppl.): 48-81). Later mollusc and orthoptera (2005), fish (2008), and bird (2013) red lists were updated.

The most endangered invertebrates are cockroaches (44.4 %), Ephemers (34.2 %), Odonata (33.3 %) and also Mollusca and Aranea (to 30 %); in group of Vertebrates, the most threatened are Lampreys (100 %) and Amphibians with Reptiles (over 40 %).
 

International comparison

International comparison of higher plants endangerment

International comparison of bird endangerment

 

Contact

Mgr. Peter Kapusta, SAŽP, peter.kapusta@sazp.sk

Related definitions:

As "endangered" species we understand the threatened species – species in IUCN categories: CR - Critically endangered taxon, EN - Endangered taxon and VU - Vulnerable taxon.

As "lower plants" within this indicator we understand the following taxons: cyanobacteria and algae, lower mushrooms, higher mushrooms, lichens and bryophytes.
 
As "higher plants" within this indicator we understand pteridophytes and spermatophytes.

 

Methodology:

The state of endangerment of lower plant species in SR is evaluated according to the red list from 2001 (Feráková, V., Maglocký, Š. & Marhold, K., 2001: Červený zoznam papraďorastov a semenných rastlín Slovenska (december 2001) – In: Baláž, D., Marhold, K. & Urban, P. eds., Červený zoznam rastlín a živočíchov Slovenska, Ochr. Prír. 20 (Suppl.): 48-81).
 
An updated red list of bryophytes was published in 2020: Mišíková, Katarína, Katarína Godovičová, Pavel Širka a Rudolf Šoltés. Checklist and red list of mosses (Bryophyta) of Slovakia. Biologia. 2020, 75(1), 21-37. ISSN 0006-3088.

The state of endangerment of higher plants in SR is evaluated according to an updated red list from 2015 (Eliáš, P. jun., Dítě, D., Kliment, J., Hrivnák, R. & Feráková, V.: Red list of ferns and flowering plants of Slovakia, 5th edition (October 2014). Biologia, Vol. 70, no. 2 (2015), p. 218–228. ISSN 0006-3088).
 
The state of endangerment of particular animal species in SR is evaluated according to the latest published red list from 2001 (Baláž, D., Marhold, K. & Urban, P. eds., Červený zoznam rastlín a živočíchov Slovenska, Ochr. Prír. 20 (Suppl.): 48-81).
 
Only the following red lists were updated:
  • molluscs (Šteffek, J., 2005: Revízia národného červeného zoznamu mäkkýšov (Mollusca) Slovenska v zmysle platných kategórií a kritérií IUCN – verzia 3.1.2001. Záverečná správa, depon. in Ústredie ŠOP SR, Banská Bystrica, 12 pp.),
  • orthoptera (Gavlas, V., Krištín, A., 2005: Zoznam a ekosozologický status rovnokrídlovcov (Orthoptera) Slovenska. Manuscript, depon. in Ústredie ŠOP SR, Banská Bystrica, 3 pp.),
  • fish (Koščo, J., Holčík, J., 2008: Anotovaný červený zoznam mihúľ a rýb Slovenska – Verzia 2007, s. 119–132 In: Lusk, S., Lusková, V. (eds.), Biodiverzita ichtyofauny ČR (VII), Ústav biologie obratlovců AV ČR, v.v.i., Brno) a
  • birds (Demko, M., Krištín, A., Puchala, P., 2013: Červený zoznam vtákov Slovenska, Tichodroma 25: 69-78 s.).

The data on the current state of endangerment is supplied by the State Nature Conservancy of SR (ŠOP SR). The data from international comparison of countries is taken from the OECD website (http://stats.oecd.org).http://stats.oecd.org/
 

Data sources:

State Nature Conservancy of the SR (SNC SR); OECD
 

Related indicators:

Related international indicators:

Linked references: