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Transportation in passenger transport

Last update of indicator 09.12.2021

Indicator definition

The indicator describes the number transported persons and performance of individual means of personal transport, including individual and public transport.


thous. pers., %, mil. pkm


Related policy documents and targets

Strategic Transport Development Plan of the Slovak Republic up to 2030 (2016)
Vision for transport sector development up to 2030
A sustainable integrated multimodal transport system that meets society's economic, social and environmental needs and contributes to the full integration of the Slovak Republic into the European Economic Area.
Strategic global objective 3 (SGO 3)
Increase in the competitiveness of transport means in passenger and freight transport (opposites of road transport) by setting the corresponding operational, organisational and infrastructural parameters which will lead to an efficient integrated multimodal transport system supporting the economic and social needs of the Slovak Republic. Increase in the quality of transport planning in the Slovak Republic by definition of the optimal target value of the modal split in the Slovak Republic and specification of steps and tools to achieve it.
6. Preventing and mitigating climate change Emission zones in cities will be established and transport solutions without negative climatic effects will be promoted.
6.2 Implementing sustainable transport solutions
Fuel prices should reflect their environmental impacts. For fossil fuels, therefore, the tax burden on petrol and diesel will be gradually balanced, with regard to competitiveness and the provision of support for alternative fuels, together with the construction of infrastructure. Long-term sustainable solutions will be preferred. Part of the promotion of sustainable transport solutions is the effort to change the overall division of transport work. In freight transport, the transfer of transport work from road transport to rail resp. water transport and in passenger transport on the transfer of transport work from individual car transport to public, city, bicycle and pedestrian transport.
Rural Development Programme of SR (2021 - 2024)
Transport that supports sustainable economic growth with regard to ecology. The Government of the Slovak Republic will adhere to the following principles when implementing a transport policy aimed at an intelligent, integrated, green and sustainable transport system:
  • decision-making based on data and social added value;
  • state transport policy, which supports sustainable economic growth,
  • strengthening the position of research and development and supporting innovations in the field of state transport policy,
  • involvement of new financial instruments in developing the potential of individual modes of transport,
  • introduction of integrated transport aimed at using environmentally friendly modes of transport,
  • transport infrastructure will generate space for new services, greater reliability and more flexibility in transport and the economy as a whole

Strategic Plan for the Development of Transport Infrastructure of the Slovak Republic up to 2020
3.8. Visions and objectives in public and passenger transport defined as:
Vision VD1 Sustainable regional and urban mobility with a higher share of public passenger transport and non-motorized transport in the modal split
Vision VD2 Accessible, reliable and user-friendly public passenger transport and sufficient information
Vision VD3 Infrastructure enabling the operation of quality integrated public passenger transport and non-motorized transport
The implementation of the VD1, VD2 a VD3 visions will be achieved through the fulfilment of target and specific goals, including:
Strategic goal SD1 Ensuring legislative, technical, strategic, budgetary and organizational conditions for the promotion of public passenger transport and non-motorized transport
Strategic goal SD2 providing an attractive public transport offer, including quality and accessible traffic information
Strategic goal SD3 Improving the quality of rolling stock and public and non-motorized transport infrastructure

Key question

What is the development in the number of persons transported and the performance in passenger transport?

Key messages

  • During the monitored period 2005 - 2019 the number of persons transported in passenger transport (including individual transport) had a fluctuating trend with an average annual movement of 2 600 000 thousand persons in 2005. Since 2015, the number of persons transported increased until 2019.The reason for the significant decrease in the number of transported persons in 2020 is the unavailability of data for individual transport.
  • In 2020, there was a significant decrease in the number of transported persons in all modes of passenger transport. The decline in demand for transport services was caused by the occurrence of COVID-19.
  • The increase in the number of persons transported and performances during the whole of the assessed period was recorded only in individual car transport.Since 2020, data for individual transport are not monitored.
  • Passenger transport performance by means of transport in the 2005 - 2019 period had a fluctuating character with a significant decrease in 2010. Between 2015 and 2019, the performance ranged at 37,000 passenger kilometres (pass-km).In 2020, transport performance in all modes of passenger transport (road, rail, water and air) fell to about half the level of transport performance last year.
  • The number of passengers transported by public transport during the period under review demonstrated a fluctuating trend with the highest number of persons transported we by means of bus transport.
Change since 2005 Change since 2015 Last year-on-year change
emo_smile Neutralny trend Neutralny trend
Most persons were transported in 2005 and after this year the development in the number of persons transported has a decreasing character. Since 2010, transport performance has increased with a significant increase in 2015.
The number of transported persons gradually increased with slight year-on-year fluctuations. Transport performance had an increasing trend.
In connection with the COVID-19 disease, there was a decrease in the number of transported persons and transport performance. Since 2020, data for individual transport are not monitored.


Summary assessment


Detailed assessment

The 2020 coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19) had a major impact on all sectors of the national economy and also significantly affected developments in the transport sector, with passenger transport more affected than freight transport. The measures implemented by the government during the first and second waves (the so-called lockdowns) achieved a reduction in the mobility of the population, which was reflected in a decrease in the performance of all modes of passenger transport. The closure of the economy and the decline in production and demand for goods have also caused a reduction in freight traffic.  

There is a long-term decrease in the number of persons transported by public road transport, as well as a decrease in the overall performance of this mode of transport.

The development in passenger transport by public road transport since 2005 has been showing a long-term year-on-year decrease. In 2020, passenger transport in road transport decreased by 34.56 % year-on-year, which represents a 65.2% decrease compared to 2005. Rail passenger transport recorded minimal year-on-year increases and decreases. In 2020, there was a year-on-year decrease of 39.1% and reched the level of year 2005. Increases in rail passenger transport were also recorded in 2014, partially due to attempts to make rail transport more attractive for pensioners and students by allowing them to travel for free, which in 2020 were canceled.
The number of passengers transported by water transport in 2020 significant decreased by 70.8% compared to 2019 and 71.7% by the year 2005. In the period under review (2005-2020), the number of passengers transported by air passenger transport decreased (from 1,716 thousand in 2005 to 39 thousand in 2020). The highest number of passengers transported via air transport was recorded in 2008. After this year, the number of passengers carried decreased due to the economic crisis and the collapse of airlines.


The number of persons transported by public transport follows a volatile trend. Over the period 2005 - 2019, transport companies recorded a 8.3% decrease in the number of transported persons. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic and related measures, there has also been a drop in mobility using public transport. In 2020, there was a 30% year-on-year decline in the number of passengers carried by public transport buses, trams and trolleybuses. During the period under review, bus transport retains the leading position in passenger transport, followed by tram and trolleybus transport.

In 2020, transport performance in all modes of passenger transport (road, rail, water and air) fell to about half the level of transport performance last year. The performance of road passenger transport in the 2005 - 2020 period was recorded a more significant decrease until 2010. After this year there was a gradual year-on-year increase in the performance of road passenger transport and since 2015 they have been around 4,500 mil. pass-km, with minimal year-on-year increases and decreases.
Rail transport performance in 2020 recorded a year-on-year decrease of 46.03%. Until 2008, there was a dramatic long-term increase in transport performance in passenger air transport. After it the performance has decreased and since 2010 it recorded only minimal year-on-year increases. This situation was caused by the economic crisis as well as the cancellation of two airlines. In 2018 they were approximately at the 2010 level. There was also a more significant decrease in 2015 and after this year they started to increase, while in 2020 they decreased significantly again.

In addition to public transport, individual car transport is also used in meeting transport requirements, which demonstrated in year-on-year increases. In the 2005 - 2019 period, the increase in passenger transport by individual transport was 10.5%.

Data for individual car transport have not been monitored since 2020.

The share of individual modes of transport in the performance of passenger transport in 2020 (excluding individual transport) is represented as follows: public transport - 58%, public road transport - 31.9%, rail transport - 10.1%.


Ing. Ľubica Koreňová, SAŽP,

Related definitions:

Transported persons represent the number of persons transported by means of transport on regular and non-scheduled transport, both domestic and international.

Passenger transport performances represent the range of passenger transport performances by all modes of passenger transport. The performance unit is one passenger kilometre.

The passenger kilometre (pass-km) represents the performance unit in passenger transport and equals the transport of 1 person over a distance of 1 kilometre. Passenger transport performance is calculated as the sum of pass-km in each mode of transport.

The indicator is divided into performance:

  • in rail passenger transport,
  • in road passenger and urban public transport,
  • in passenger air transport,
  • in passenger water transport.
The average transport distance is the ratio of performance expressed in tkm (tonne-kilometre), or in passenger kilometres and amount of tons, or people transported.

Public transport is provided by public transport companies in Bratislava, Košice, Prešov, Banská Bystrica and Žilina. In other cities of the Slovak Republic, public transport is provided by road passenger transport companies or private businesses. However, such transport is not reported as public transport. In public transport, prices are regulated through price regulation in relation to the costs of operation and to subsidies from the state and city budgets. 

Non-public transport includes enterprises with predominantly non-transport activities, registered in the Commercial Register. These entities carry out transport activities for their own or external needs. The transport activity for own needs includes the transport of goods for own production processes. A transport activity for external needs is transport where a legal relationship has been established based on a contract between the transport operator and the natural or legal person whose transport needs are to be carried out and which is concerned with the carriage of goods, other goods and persons; i.e. transport carried out for remuneration.

The indicator is divided by mode of transport into

  • rail,
  • road and urban public transport,
  • air,
  • water,

and by the type of transport to:

  • national,
  • International.


Transport includes entities predominantly transporting goods and passengers in national and international transport, including ancillary and auxiliary transport activities (excluding travel agents). Other land transport includes road transport, public transport and taxis.

The purpose of the statistical survey in transport is to obtain information for the assessment, analysis, operational and conceptual management as well as for the performance of State Administration and Road Supervision.
The purpose of the survey is to obtain traffic information. The results of the survey are used for analytical purposes and to meet the needs of the information system of the Statistical Office of the Slovak Republic, the requirements of the European Statistical System and international organizations.
The Statistical Office of the SR carries out statistical surveys in order to obtain information on the state and development of the economy and society of the Slovak Republic and for international comparisons. This survey is part of the Program of State Statistical Surveys approved for the years 2020 - 2023, published in the Collection of Laws of the Slovak Republic. The statistical survey is carried out by filling in the statistical forms available on the website of the Statistical Office of the Slovak Republic.

Data sources:

Statistical Office of the Slovak Republic (SO SR)

Related indicators:

Related international indicators:

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