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Conservation status of habitats of European interest

Last update of indicator 20.12.2021

Indicator definition

The indicator evaluates the share of the conservation status (overall, or by formation group) of natural habitats of European interest in accordance with Art. 17 of the EU Directive of Natural Habitats and the related reporting (the evaluation reports issued every six years; 2004–2006 / 2007–2012 / 2013 – 2018), as well as the annual development comparison of this share from the monitoring results by the State Nature Conservancy of the Slovak Republic (the SNC SR) in the Complex Information and Monitoring System (KIMS).
 

Units

%

Metadata

Related policy documents and targets

Vision and Strategy for the Development of Slovakia until 2030 - Long-term Strategy for the Sustainable Development of the Slovak Republic - Slovakia 2030 (2021)

1. Integrated Development Program I. Resource conservation and development

I.5 Ensure effective and sustainable management of natural resources

1. Ensure the protection, restoration and improvement of natural resources, including ensuring the stability and health of ecosystems and their services and mainstreaming adaptation and mitigation measures to the adverse effects of climate change into all departmental strategic documents and municipal and regional development documents as an overriding public interest (e.g. in transport planning, energy, spatial planning, water management, agriculture, forestry, sustainable tourism, overall landscape care, etc.).

10. Develop and implement a water policy that ensures the gradual restoration of water bodies, the protection and restoration of natural floodplains, peatlands, wetlands and small reservoirs, which will prevent water pollution, the decline of groundwater and ensure the sufficiency of drinking water in the regions;

15a. Restore at least 15% of degraded ecosystems compared to 2018

15b. Increase the proportion of habitats and species of Community importance in favourable condition from 1/3 of habitats and 1/4 of species in 2018 to 2/3 of habitats and 1/2 of species by 2030.

 

Greener Slovakia - Strategy of the Environmental Policy of the Slovak Republic until 2030 (Envirostrategy 2030) (2019)

Slovakia will prevent the deterioration of protected species and habitats.

2.1 Stopping the Loss of Biodiversity

  • Conditions to minimize the negative impacts of anthropogenic activity will be created, including the impacts of climate change, causing the reduction of biological diversity of plant and animal species and loss of habitats, and the law enforcement in the field of nature protection will be enhanced.
  • The completion of the national part of the Natura 2000 network of protected areas and the systems of internationally important territories with appropriate protection, will further enhance the conditions for the protection of internationally and nationally important species and habitats and they will also increase the contribution of the Slovak Republic to halting the global loss of biodiversity.
  • By 2030, at least 15% of degraded ecosystems in Slovakia will be restored.
  • The protection of primeval forests and their habitat, as well as an appropriate management of their protection zones will be ensured.
  • The wetland restoration program and their ecosystem services, based on the participation of all concerned parties, will be implemented.
  • In cooperation with owners and land managers, via utilization of all available resources, the protection and restoration of forests, meadows and pastures that represent the highest biodiversity ecosystems and the creation of a groforestry systems will be supported.

 

Climate Change Adaptation Strategy of the Slovak Republic - Update (2018)

Proposed ecosystem-based biodiversity adaptation measures:

  • Restoration of degraded wetlands (revitalisation of peatlands, restoration of disturbed water regime, prevention of overgrowth of trees) and floodplains
  • Sustainable grassland management

 

The updated National Biodiversity Strategy up to 2020 (2014)

Area A Nature protection
Objective A.1 To stop the deterioration of the status of all species and habitats, especially those covered by the EU legislation and achieve a significant and measurable improvement in their status
 
Area B Preservation and enhancement of ecosystems and their services
Objective B.3 By 2020, to ensure the preservation and enhancement of ecosystems and their services by establishing green infrastructure and restoring at least 15% of degraded ecosystems
 
Area C Biodiversity Conservation in the State Policy of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries
Objective C.4 By 2020, to implement the Common agricultural policy measures favourable for biodiversity at all utilized agricultural areas in order to measurably improve the conservation status of species and habitats
 
Objective C.5 Within the implementation of caring for forests programs, to ensure the measurable improvement in the conservation status of those species and habitats that depend on sound forest environment or on which the forestry has a major impact, and ensure measurable improvement in the provision of ecosystem services in line with sustainable forest management compared to the reference scenario of the EU (2010)
 
Objective C.6 To ensure a favourable conservation status of aquatic and water-bound habitats and species, in line with the aim of achieving the good environmental status of aquatic ecosystems by 2020, whereby – within the development and regulation of aquaculture - it is necessary to provide such form of water use, which does not adversely affect aquatic species, habitats and ecosystems.

 

Action plan for implementation of measures resulting from the updated National Biodiversity Strategy up to 2020 (2014)

Area A Nature protection
Objective A.1
Achieving the EU´s objective: up to 2020, to stop the deterioration of the status of all species and habitats, and achieve a significant and measurable improvement in their status so that  (compared to the current assessment) by 100% more habitat assessments under the Habitats Directive would show improvement in the conservation status.
In Slovakia, it is necessary to improve the conservation status of 30 habitats, while at the same time it is necessary to retain (not to worsen) the conservation status of 30 habitats, whereby wetland habitats are prioritized.
Measure A.1.1 Consistently implement the Birds Directive and the Habitats Directive, adopted resolutions and decisions of international conventions, organizations and programs and improved national legislation in order to strengthen the protection of species and habitats and also link the network of protected areas on a scientific basis
Proposed tasks:
3. To monitor the species and habitats of European importance
7. To ensure the revitalization of the most threatened habitats (notably sands, salt marshes, xerothermic h.)
8. To improve nesting possibilities of selected and also other bird species in the Special protection areas (SPAs) and in urban habitats, and ensure the mapping and protection of feeding habitats of criteria species of birds in SPA
 
Area B Preservation and enhancement of ecosystems and their services
Objective B.3
Measure B.3.4 Develop a strategic framework for setting priorities for ecosystem restoration and to prepare and implement a program of revitalization of wetlands and river ecosystems, as a contribution to reducing the impact of climate change
Proposed tasks:
78. To prepare and implement a national program of revitalization of wetlands and river ecosystems
 
Area C Biodiversity Conservation in the State Policy of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries
Objective C.4
To achieve this goal it is necessary to:
  • implement measures with positive effects on biodiversity, species, habitats and protected areas in order to maximize the contribution of farmers to the conservation of biodiversity at the national level
  • identify species and habitats dependent on the mode of management, and to prepare and implement concrete measures with the support of European funds intended to improve their conservation status
Measure C.4.3 To identify habitats and species dependent on the mode of management and to prepare and implement particular measures with the support of respective European funds for their conservation status improvement
Proposed tasks:
107. To realize PRV scheme "Protection of permanent grassland habitats", within the "Agri-environment-climate measure"
109. To develop principles and proposals for the management of selected habitat types (e.g. grassland habitat TR1 (6210), Lk4 (6410), bog habitat Ra3 (7140), Ra6 (7230), Ra1 (7110)

 
Objective C.5

Measure C.5.2 Integrate biodiversity measures in forest care programs also in connection with the integration of forest care programs and care programs for protected areas
Proposed tasks:
117. To improve the condition of habitats for animal species (retention of deadwood, exhibitions, hollow trees, creating an appropriate structure of stands for gallinaceous birds, support of valuable tree species - yew, fir, limba, valuable hardwoods) in protected areas and outside them.

 

Updated Programme of the care of wetlands of Slovakia for 2015 – 2021 (2015)

Strategic intentions
Intention 1: Solving causes of loss and degradation of marshes
Intention 2: Effective protection and management of the system of Ramsar sites
Intention 3: Sustainable utilization of all marshes.

 

Key question

What is the conservation status of habitats of European interest?

Key messages

  • In 2019, the third 6-year assessment report was drafted on the conservation status of habitats and species of European importance (for 2013 – 2018) under Article 17 of the Habitats Directive and submitted to the EC;
  • Overall, the status of habitats deteriorated, but this result is mainly due to the introduction of improved monitoring system knowledge, improved expert estimates and the identification of relevant data that were previously unknown. Therefore, the assessment of the latest situation is closer to reality when compared to previous reporting periods. In fact, the report doesn´t show a deterioration compared to previous periods, but a better and more realistic assessment of the situation, which is more or less the same as in previous periods;
  • According to the results of the 3rd reporting period, as of 2018, 60.4% of species of European interest were in an unfavorable (unsatisfactory or bad) conservation status.
  • The only real change compared to the previous assessment was recorded in the case of habitat 9190 Old acidophilous oak woods (the area was reduced by 17% due to negative human interference).

 

Change since 1993 Change since 2005 Last year-on-year change
udaje nie su k dispozici emo_neutral emo_none
The conservation status of habitats of European interest (EI) has been assessed since 2004, i.e. since the SR´s accession to the EU.
Compared to the 1st period (2004 – 2006) and 2nd period (2007 – 2012), there was a deterioration in the conservation status of habitats of EI in the third reporting period, but on the other hand, there was a significant improvement in knowledge.
The conservation status of habitats of EI is assessed at 6 year intervals as part of the reporting to the EC. However, according to the records from KIMS (continuous monitoring) it can be stated that their status has not changed significantly.

 

Summary assessment

 

Detailed assessment

The Habitats Directive (Council Directive no.92/43/EEC on the Protection of natural habitats, wild animals and plants) implies also habitats protection for selected types of habitats, including the obligation to monitor the conservation status of habitats listed in the Annexes to the Directive (habitats of European interest (EI)).
 

Assessment as part of the reporting to the EC

The SOP SR collects and prepares documents for the assessment report on the status of habitats and species of European interest within the meaning of Article 17 of the Habitats Directive. The first report was prepared and submitted to the EC in 2007 (for the years 2004 2006), the second in 2013 (for the years 2007 2012) and the third in 2019 (for the years 2013 2018).

 

Assessment of the conservation status of EI natural habitats according to the 3rd evaluation report (2013 2018)

 
The new report for the 2013 – 2018 period is based primarily of data from KIMS (Complex Information Monitoring System), which has significantly reduced the number of unknown species and habitats assessments.
 
For the Slovak Republic the report evaluates 66 types of habitats of EI, which can be categorized into nine groups. The groups of forest (19) and grasslands (15) habitats are numerous. In our territory, the group of halophytic habitats - salt marshes (2), sands (1) and sclerophyllous scrubs (1) is the least represented.  Besides them we distinguish freshwater habitats (9), heaths and scrubland habitats in temperate zones (5), bogs (6) and rocky habitats and caves (8).
 
Saltmarsh habitats - in Slovakia, habitats associated with highly saline soils: they are among the most endangered habitats on a pan-European scale. In Slovakia, their condition is persistently poor. As a result of the intensification of agriculture in the past, which persists to this day, large areas have been destroyed, mainly by activities such as drainage, eutrophication and ruderalisation, direct destruction of sites e.g. by ploughing, afforestation and successional changes caused by the absence of traditional farming. A prerequisite for improving the status of the habitat is the improvement of the structure and the restoration of management in the form of grazing or the restoration of the water regime.
 
Within the sand habitat group, only acid sands (inland Pannonian sand dunes) are assessed and they are in poor condition. The overall adverse situation can only be avoided by preventing the spread of non-native plant species and avoiding natural or targeted afforestation.
The condition of the sclerophyll shrubs (juniper stands) is unsatisfactory in the long term, which is related to their future prospects. The habitat is threatened by succession, as well as by clearing of grasslands, afforestation, eutrophication and sand extraction.
 
Raised bogs, peatlands and fens belong to rare habitats in Slovakia with a small area, but in unfavourable to poor condition. They are threatened by changes in the water regime, other negative factors affecting the quality and condition of the habitats include succession, eutrophication, peat extraction, accumulation of organic material and sport and recreational activities.
 
Across the grassland-herbaceous habitat group, the number of unfavourable (unsatisfactory) condition assessments increased, while the number of habitats in favourable condition decreased slightly compared to the 2013 reporting. In general, this may not be a deterioration per se, but an increase in the level of knowledge and understanding of habitat complexes and their typical structure. There are 2 habitats in favourable condition - pioneer stands of Alysso-Sedion albi and dry dealpine grass-herb stands, which require only occasional maintenance management or have a relict character. The improvement of the status (from poor to unsatisfactory) occurred in the case of 2 habitats: xeric sand calcareous grasslands (pioneer vegetation) and Pannonic sand steppes (structurally and species-rich). The unsatisfactory to poor condition is mainly related with the land abandonment and subsequent succession, as well as changes in land use, afforestation, sand and stone extraction and changes in the water regime.
 
Trends in the overall condition of aquatic habitats have changed only slightly from the 2013 reporting. The number of habitat assessments in favourable condition decreased from 6 to 4, the number of unknown assessments remained the same. In general, backwaters, flowing waters and lakes are in a long-term unsatisfactory condition Aquatic habitats are very sensitive to changes in the water regime and to different trophic levels (eutrophic, oligotrophic to mesotrophic and dystrophic). They are particularly sensitive to anthropic influences, so any interference with the natural regime will have a negative impact on the species richness and natural structure of the habitats. Only 2 habitats have a favourable assessment: naturally eutrophic and mesotrophic standing waters with submerged or floating vegetation and also watercourses with Callitricho-Batrachion vegetation.
 
The assessment of the condition of heathland and scrub habitats in the 2019 reporting has yielded positive results, as the number of habitat assessments in favourable condition has increased from 4 to 6 and only 1 assessment is unfavourable. Most of them are in a favourable condition, which is determined by the inaccessibility and isolation of their habitats. Heathlands located in lowland areas up to foothill areas and xerothermic scrub is threatened by ruderalisation and the subsequent spread of non-native plant species.
 
From the group of non-forest biotopes the most favourable assessments is for the rock and debris habitats, caves. This is mainly related to the limited interest in their use, but nevertheless the habitats of this group may be threatened (in the case of debris habitats, e.g. by removal of material for construction activities, or by a sudden change in microclimate due to the removal of trees on the site, or by succession).
 
The overall condition of forest habitats, which are the most widespread group of habitats in Slovakia, is favourable in case of 10 assessments, unfavourable for 13 and in 6 cases the poor condition persists. Forest habitats in Slovakia show overall stability in the long term, mainly due to their quantity.
 

Assessment of the conservation status of EI natural habitats according to the 2nd evaluation report (2007 2012)

 

Based on the comparison of habitat status with the evaluation in 2007 we can state that the knowledge improved, i.e. less assessments show an unknown status. The total share of habitats with the favourable assessment of the status improved, which is caused mainly by the mentioned improvement of knowledge. The share of species and habitats being in the bad condition almost did not change which indicates that the necessary measures for the re-establishment of habitats, are still applied unsatisfactorily.

For the Slovak Republic the report evaluates 66 types of habitats of EI, which can be categorized into nine groups. The groups of forest (19) and grasslands (15) habitats are numerous. In our territory, the group of halophytic habitats - salt marshes (2), sands (1) and sclerophyllous scrubs (1) is the least represented.  Besides them we distinguish freshwater habitats (9), heaths and scrubland habitats in temperate zones (5), bogs (6) and rocky habitats and caves (8).


Salt-marsh habitats are among the most endangered habitats on a Europe-wide scale. Their condition in Slovakia is assessed as unfavourable-bad. As well as partial evaluations of area, structure and functions, also future prospects are rated as unsatisfactory or bad.

 
High bogs, peatlands and fens are habitats where changes in the hydrological regime and poor management cause the deterioration of status or even degradation of habitat. Their condition in Slovakia is assessed as unfavourable-unsatisfactory or even unfavourable -bad.
 
Another group of habitats, whose condition is assessed as unfavourable-unsatisfactory, is group of sand habitats, occurring only in the Borská lowland on unpaved acidic sand dunes. They are at risk of afforestation and succession.
 
Sclerophyllous scrubs are represented by the habitat of juniper stands. Their condition, compared to the previous reporting period, has changed to unfavourable-unsatisfactory. It is associated with adversely assessed future prospects, which are based on the effects of succession and cleaning of extensively used grasslands from seeding trees and shrubs.
 
Aquatic habitats (mountain rivers, standing waters) dependent on the dynamics of watercourses and adequate quality, heathlands and shrub habitats dependent on occasional and targeted management, and grasslands habitats requiring regular management are located between the assessment of the favourable  to  unfavourable-bad.
Relatively the least vulnerable groups are rock and scree habitats and caves.

 

Assessment under continuous monitoring from KIMS

In addition to summary evaluations of the conservation status of species and natural habitats in accordance with the Habitats Directive (for the respective reporting periods), their status is monitored in the Slovak Republic continuously in the Complex Information and Monitoring System (KIMS) of the SNC SR (State Nature Conservancy of the Slovak Republic). The monitoring subject is also, among other things, 66 types of habitats of EI.
 

Assessment of the conservation satus of EI habitats according to KIMS (as of 2020)

 
According to continuous monitoring results from KIMS, as of 2020, 55.4% of EI habitats were in a favourable condition, 33.2% in an unsatisfactory condition and 11.4% in a bad condition.
 
Practical habitat care was aimed at replacing the lack of traditional grassland management and consisted primarily in the elimination of woody growth, mowing of biomass and its removal from the sites. These measures were carried out on a total of 155 sites with a total area of 585.84 ha in protected areas and on 28 gene pool areas with a total area of 20.60 ha.

 

Assessment of the conservation satus of EI habitats according to KIMS (as of 2019)

 

KIMS was supplemented in 2019 with 37,153 zoological, 1,218 habitat and 45,594 botanical records, including protected and invasive species (occurrence records). This represents an increase of more than 32% in the total number of occurrence records entered into KIMS in 2019 compared to the same period last year.
 
According to continuous monitoring results from KIMS, as of 2019, 55.1% of natural habitats were in a favourable condition, 33.4% in an unsatisfactory condition and 11.5% in a bad condition.
 
Practical habitat care
In 2019 it was aimed at replacing the lack of traditional grassland management and consisted primarily in the elimination of woody growth, mowing of biomass and its removal from the sites. These measures were carried out on a total of 140 sites with a total area of 258.86 ha in protected areas and on 21 gene pool areas with a total area of 11.27 ha.
As part of the established internal management fund, practical management measures aimed at replacing the missing traditional management were provided by contractors on a total of 89 sites with a total area of 169.58 hectares.

 

Assessment of the conservation satus of EI habitats according to KIMS (as of 2018)


According to continuous monitoring results from KIMS, as of 2018, 55.2% of EI habitats were in a favourable condition, 33.3% in an unsatisfactory condition and 11.6% in a bad condition.

 

Practical habitat care
In 2018 it was aimed particularly at replacing the lack of traditional management and consisted mainly in the elimination of woody growth, mowing of biomass and its removal from the sites. These measures were carried out on a total of 177 sites with a total area of 534.415 ha in protected areas and on 24 gene pool areas with a total area of 13.418 ha. Specific management measures are not carried out separately for habitats only, but synergistically with species conservation in the framework of regulatory measures.
 

Assessment of the conservation satus of EI habitats according to KIMS (as of 2017)

 
According to continuous monitoring results from KIMS, as of 2017, 55% of EI habitats were in a favourable condition, 33.1% in an unsatisfactory condition and 11.9% in a bad condition.
 
Practical habitat care
In 2017 it was aimed particularly at replacing the lack of traditional management and consisted primarily in the elimination of woody growth, mowing of biomass and its removal from the sites. These measures were carried out on a total of 122 sites with a total area of 231.945 ha in protected areas and on 36 gene pool areas with a total area of 28.951 ha.

 

Assessment of the conservation satus of EI habitats according to KIMS (as of 2016)

 

According to continuous monitoring results from KIMS, as of 2016, 54.6% of natural habitats were in a favourable condition (by 14.1% more than in the previous year), 33.1% in an unsatisfactory condition and 12.3% in a bad condition.
 
Practical habitat care
In 2016 it was aimed particularly at replacing the lack of traditional management and consisted mainly in the elimination of woody growth, mowing of biomass and its subsequent removal from the sites. These measures were carried out on a total of 91 sites with a total area of 171.35 ha in protected areas and on 33 gene pool areas with a total area of 27.04 ha.
 

Assessment of the conservation satus of EI habitats according to KIMS (as of 2015)

 
According to the continuous monitoring results from KIMS, as of 2015, 40.5% of EI habitats were in a favourable condition.
 
Practical habitat care
In 2015 it was aimed particularly at replacing the lack of traditional management and consisted mainly in the elimination of woody growth, mowing of biomass and its subsequent removal from the sites. These measures were carried out on a total of 109 sites with a total area of 217 ha in protected areas and on 51 gene pool areas with a total area of 210.02 ha.
 

International comparison

Chart: International comparison Conservation status of habitats of EU importance

https://www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/daviz/proportion-of-habitat-assessments-in-2#tab-chart_1

 

Contact

Mgr. Peter Kapusta, SAŽP, peter.kapusta@sazp.sk

Related definitions:

Habitat means terrestrial or aquatic area defined by geographic, abiotic and biotic characteristics, regardless of whether they are completely natural or semi-natural;
 
Habitat types of Community interest (habitats of European importance (EI)) are the types of habitats which, on the territory defined in Article 2 (EU Habitats Directive),
(i) are at risk of being lost in their natural area, or
(ii) have a small natural area due to its decline or because of their naturally restricted area, or
(iii) represent outstanding examples of typical elements of one or more of the six following biogeographical regions: Alpine, Atlantic, Boreal, Continental, Macaronesian and The Mediterranean.
Such habitat types are or may be listed in Annex I of the Directive;
 
The conservation status of habitat regarding the nature protection is a sum of the impacts affecting the habitat and its typical species that may affect its long-term natural distribution, structure and functions, as well as long-term survival of its typical species within the territory referred to in Article 2 of the Directive.
The status of habitat regarding the nature conservation will be considered "favourable" when:
  • its natural range and area it covers in this site, are stable or increasing,
  • the specific structure and functions, which are necessary for its long-term   maintenance, exist and are likely to exist in the foreseeable future,
  • the status of its typical species is in terms of protection favourable.

 

Methodology:

Monitoring / Reports

EU Member States are obliged to continuously monitor and report on the conservation status of habitats of European interest (EI) (pursuant to the Council Directive 92/43/EEC on the conservation of natural habitats and of wild fauna and flora - the EU Habitats Directive) to the European Commission every 6 years.

Pursuant to Art. 17 of the Habitats Directive, they are required to prepare a report on the implementation of the measures taken in accordance with the Directive, including an assessment of the impacts of those measures on the conservation status of Annex I habitats and Annex II species.

The first Report on the Status of Habitats and Species of EI for Slovakia was prepared and submitted to the EC in 2007 (for first assessment cycle / reporting period 2004 – 2006), second in 2013 (for period 2007 – 2012) and third in 2019 (for period 2013 – 2018).

The latest report so far covers the years 2013-2018 and contains comprehensive information on population sizes, habitat area, condition and quality of habitats, future prospects, mapped distribution, impacts and threats, and other important parameters.

A total of 150 animal species, 50 plant species, 66 habitat types and 223 bird species were assessed.

 

Habitats

The indicator is based on the results of this reporting (from the so-called evaluation reports), as well as on ongoing data of monitoring 66 types of EI habitats at the Slovak level within the Complex Information and Monitoring System (KIMS) operated by the SNC SR.

According to the Catalogue of habitats of Slovakia they are divided into formation groups:

  • Peat bogs and fens (Ra)
  • Shrub and bush habitats (Kr)
  • Rock and debris biotopes (Sk)
  • Forests (Ls)
  • Xeric sand calcareous grasslands (Tr)
  • Non-forested riparian vegetation (Br)
  • Meadows and pastures (Lk)
  • Saltmarshes and habitats with halophytes (Sl)
  • Alpine vegetation (Al)
  • Sands and pioneer vegetation (Pi)
  • Springs (Pr)
  • Aquatic habitats (Vo)

 

Conservation status / Trends

Trends are evaluated as follows:

FVx = favourable and the trend of the status is unknown,
U1+ = unfavourable - unsatisfactory but improving,
U1= = unfavourable - unsatisfactory, but stable,
U1- = unfavourable - unsatisfactory and deteriorating,
U1x = unfavourable - unsatisfactory and the trend of the status is unknown,
U2+ = unfavourable - poor, but improving,
U2+ = unfavourable - poor, but stable,
U2+ = unfavourable - poor and deteriorating,
U2x = unfavourable - poor and the trend of the status is unknown

 

The conservation status is expressed in three 'traffic light' categories ('Favourable (FV)' – green, 'unfavourable - unsatisfactory (U1)' – orange, 'unfavourable - bad (U2)' – red, plus unknown (XX) – grey).
The indicator is based on the number of habitats in these categories and changes between the individual categories over the time.

The indicator is formed on the basis of valid European methodologies by aggregating large sets of data obtained within the monitoring of species at SR level.

 

Data sources:

State Nature Conservancy of the SR (SNC SR)

 

The results of the 3rd EI habitat assessment in Slovakia were published in the document:
Černecký, J., Čuláková, J., Ďuricová, V., Saxa, A., Andráš, P., Ulrych, L., Šuvada, R., Galvánková, J., Lešová, A., Havranová, I. 2020. Report on the status of habitats and species of Community importance for the period 2013-2018 in the Slovak Republic. Banská Bystrica: ŠOP SR, 109 pp, ISBN 978-80-8184-076-0.
 
More information from the reporting results can be found on the website:
 
All related reports are published on the SNC SR website:

 

Related indicators:

Linked references: