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Noise pollution of population

Last update of indicator 10.09.2015

Indicator definition

The indicator describes the exposure of population to the noise in relation to the strategic noise maps (SHM) for Bratislava agglomeration and roads.

Units

dB

Metadata

Related policy documents and targets

The action plan for noise protection aims to reduce noise in areas where the action values of noise indicators are exceeded and reduce the number of people exposed to excessive noise. The development of action plans for noise protection IInd stage was based on the strategic noise maps drafted in 2011, which did not take the changes made in 2012 and 2013 into account, which is herein incorporated in form of notes.

To reduce noise emissions from transport to the level of noise limit values for human health and the environment is a long-term target, and it is in direct contrast with the increasing demand for transport. To achieve the objective, it is necessary to, for example,
  • Apply knowledge of technical acoustics – in the largest possible extent at all stages of the proposed activities that are likely to impact the environment and human health
  • When planning and managing transport – to use knowledge from strategic noise maps
  • Authorisation of buildings in the vicinity of roads conditional upon meeting the applicable noise limits for investors; to take into account the effects of external noise sources in the layout of internal spaces
  • Reducing noise transmission – when designing noise prevention measures, use the latest knowledge and experience
In its sections the Action Plan describes in more details the various parts of the road sections with a total length of 596 703 km.

Key question

Have the noise emissions been reduced in the way that the action values laid down for assessing the noise burden of population are met?

Key messages

  • Based on the evaluation of conflicting plans in 2011, on the sections of 1st class roads managed by the Slovak Road Administration (SRA) there live: 84 700 inhabitants with the exceeded action value Lden = 60 dB, 108 400 inhabitants with the exceeded action value Lnight = 50 dB, 43 600 inhabitants with the exceeded action value Lden = 65 dB, 60 300 inhabitants with the exceeded action value Lnight = 55 dB.
  • Based on the evaluation of conflicting plans in 2011, in the vicinity of motorways and expressways managed by the National Highway Company (NDS a.s.) there live: 16 900 inhabitants with the exceeded action value Lden = 60 dB, 31 700 inhabitants with the exceeded action value Lnight = 50 dB, 3 800 inhabitants with the exceeded action value Lden = 65 dB, 6 700 residents with the exceeded action value Lnight = 55 dB.
  • Based on the evaluation of conflicting plans in 2011, out of 494 546 inhabitants in total in Bratislava agglomeration, 64 000 residents live in apartments with the exceeded action value of the noise indicators Lden = 65 dB from road transport, 23 900 inhabitants- from railway transport, and 200 residents - from transport on the M.R. Štefánik airport. 50 800 inhabitants live with the exceeded action value Lnight = 55 dB from road transport, 34 900 inhabitants- from railway transport, and no residents are exposed to air transport noise.
Change since 1990 Change since 2000 Last year-on-year change
udaje nie su k dispozici Pozitivny trend emo_smile
Data for given time period are not available. Data have been available only since 2011, when the strategic noise maps were made for the first time (they will be updated every 5 years). Based on the strategic noise maps, the noise emissions have been reduced also thanks to building the noise barriers.

Summary assessment

Strategic noise maps were developed for the Bratislava agglomeration, sections of 1st class roads managed by the Slovak Road Administration, motorways and expressways managed by the Národná diaľničná spoločnosť a.s.

Noise maps are available at:
http://www.hlukovamapa.sk/

Detailed assessment

In 2011, the strategic noise maps for road and rail transport were drawn up, for the sections of roads and railroads (lines), including tramways in the Bratislava agglomeration, on which the traffic intensity was more than 3 million vehicles per year on roads, and more than 30 000 train sets per year on railways and tramways.

Based on the developed SNM and after evaluating the so called conflict plans 378 060 inhabitants lived in the vicinity of 1st class roads managed by SRA, whereby in those sections there were reported 152 bottlenecks. The busiest is the Žilina region and surrounding areas.

On the sections of motorways, expressways and1st class roads, managed by NDS a.s., there were 20 bottlenecks  identified.

When planning new transport infrastructure, noise studies are made to minimize noise burden on the population and the construction of noise barriers is carried out. In 2013, in the road transport there were 3 768 m of noise barriers built, and in the rail transport 6 781 m of noise barriers were added.

The issue of public health protection against adverse effects of noise and vibrations is regulated by the Act no. 2/2005 Coll. on Assessment and management of environmental noise, which amends the Act of NC SR no. 355/2007 Coll. on Protection, support and development of public health, as amended. That law is followed by the SR GR no.43/2005 Coll. laying down the details on Strategic noise maps and action plans for protection against noise. It includes precisely defined noise indicators and data which must include strategic noise maps and action plans. In July 2008, the special noise indicator values ​​were changed by SR GR no. 258/2008 Coll.

Action values of noise indicators in the external environment Lden and Lnight , given by the Government Regulation 258/2008 Coll.

Noise sources Action values of noise indicators (dB)
External environment a) External environment with special protection against noiseb)
Lden Lnight Lden Lnight
Industry 55 40 50 35
Airports c) 60 50 60 50
Airports d) 65 55 55 40
Roads c) 60 50 55 45
Roads d) 65 55 60 50
Railways 60 50 55 45

Table notes:
a) Except industrial sites and sites of transport equipment of area.
b) Quiet areas in an agglomeration, for example spa and wellness facilities.
c) Action values applicable to July 15, 2008
d) Action values applicable from July 15, 2008

International comparison

The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that approximately 40% of the EU population is exposed to traffic noise at levels exceeding 55 dB, and that more than 30% is exposed to levels of more than 55 dB at night.
Exposure of population to noise from transport (EEA)

Contact

Ing. Ľubica Koreňová, SAŽP, lubica.korenova@sazp.sk

Related definitions:

Agglomeration is part of the territory, which has more than 100 000 residents. Boundaries are determined by self-governing regions.

Noise from outdoor environment is unwanted or harmful outdoor sound created by human activities, especially traffic noise on roads, railways, from air transport and industrial activity. (Section 3, letter a) of Act no. 2/2005 Coll.)

Sound is a mechanical vibration of the particles of elastic environment.

Audible sound is the sound able to cause hearing sensation; it is the sound whose frequency spectrum lies in third-octave frequency bands with the centre frequencies of 20 Hz to 20 kHz. Audible sound with significant frequency components in frequencies below 50 Hz is a low-frequency sound.

Noise is any unwanted, intrusive, unpleasant or harmful sound.

The high-frequency sound is the audible sound whose sound pressure level is in some or all third-octave bands with centre frequency of 8 kHz to 20 kHz.

Infrasound is sound whose frequency spectrum is in third-octave bands with centre frequency of 1 Hz to 20 Hz.

Ultrasound is sound with a higher frequency than audible sound. For the purpose of this regulation it is the sound in the frequency third-octave bands with centre frequency of 25 kHz to 40 kHz.

Special values of Lden and Lnight is the value the exceedance of which is the reason for local self-government, administrators of roads, railway operators and for airport operators to adopt measures to reduce noise

"Lden" (day- evening-night noise indicator) shall mean the noise indicator for overall annoyance

"Lnight" (night-time noise indicator) shall mean the noise indicator of sleep disturbance.

 
Methodology:

SNM calculation was made using the Cadna A program. It is the software that allows the evaluation of noise immission in accordance with the requirements laid down by the Act no. 2/2005 Coll. and Government Regulation no. 43/2005 Coll. for drawing up strategic noise maps. (legislation)

Description of the methodology on web-site
Methodology of noise calculation
 

Data sources:

Euroakustik s.r.o.


Related indicators:


Related international indicators:


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