Last update of indicator 18.11.2021
The indicator provides information on the extent of water use, abstraction of surface water and groundwater abstractions.
1. Enough clean water for everyone
1.1 The prevention of water pollution
1.3. Elimination of adverse impacts on water courses
Orientation, Principles and Priorities of the Slovak Republic Water Management Policy by 2027 (2016)
3. PRINCIPLES AND PRIORITIES OF THE SLOVAK REPUBLIC WATER MANAGEMENT POLICY BY 2027 AND FRAMEWORK PROCEDURES IN ACHIEVING THE OBJECTIVES:
Priorities of water management
In order to ensure the efficient use of water resources:
Environmental target for surface water bodies is to perform measures aimed at:
Environmental target for underground water bodies is to perform measures aimed at:
SR Government´s Statement of policy the for the period 2021 - 2024 (2021)
The Slovak Republic Strategy for Adaptation to Adverse Effects of Climate Change- Update (2018)
1. Strategy Goals
The main goal of the updated the Slovak Republic Strategy for Adaptation to Adverse Effects of Climate Change is to prepare Slovakia for tackling the adverse effects of climate change, deliver comprehensive information about the current state of adaptation processes in Slovakia, and based on their analysis establish an institutional framework for a coordinating mechanism which will ensure effective implementation of adaptation measures across all levels and in all areas, as well as improve general awareness of the domain.
5. Impact of climate change on select areas and recommended adaptation measures
5.4. Water regime and water management
Adaptation measures in local conditions should aim at compensating for the instances of drought, that is, the decrease of flows of water and water yields, as well as minimising the negative consequences of floods, especially flash floods in montane and submontane regions. Climate change adaptation within the domain of water management should be oriented towards implementing measures which will create the conditions for better water outflow management in catchment areas. In the domain of water management elements of green and blue infrastructure, green structural approaches and non-structural adaptation concepts should be prioritised over elements of grey infrastructure whenever it is technically possible and efficient to do so. Adaptation measures should focus on preserving or improving the current state of water, with the aim of achieving its good state, efficient and sustainable utilisation of water resources, protection against floods and contribution towards protection of nature and land and support with ecosystem services provision. It is important to create space for a wider application of so-called "green" measures in catchment areas where the main goal is to increase the land's adaptability through regeneration and improvement of efficiency of ecosystem functions of the land. "Green" measures are recognised as the better environmental choice, that is, as supplementary-mitigating measures with the aim of minimising the consequences of grey infrastructure, assuming that they are equally effective or more effective in regards to set goals.
Water is becoming a critical strategic stock of the state and it is necessary to protect it and manage its rational and efficient use in line with the goal of ensuring sustainable development. Justifiably, the highest priority is given to water sources, their protection and the need of their more efficient use.
Proposed adaptation measures
-slowing down of water outflow from catchment areas
-decreasing of the maximum flow of floods
The Protocol on Water and Health - to the Convention on the Protection and Use of Transboundary Watercourses and International Lakes, 1992 - National objectives of SR III (2014)
The reason for the Protocol´s objectives update in 2014 is their fulfilment, or the need of extending the deadlines for the fulfilment of objectives which are still actual, as well as determining new national objectives conditioned by the situation change and the occurrence of new problems to which the attention must be paid, and which seem to be important in terms of Protocol´s objectives implementation in SR. SR has defined the national objectives already for the third time since the Protocol entered into force.
National objectives of SR III
National objective no.11: Increasing public awareness of water and aquatic ecosystems protection and educational activities
Date of fulfilment: y. 2020
National objective no. 12: Strengthening the protection of water resources
Date of fulfilment: y. 2015 – 2020
|Change since 2005||Change since 2015||Last year-on-year change|
Water utilization rate was of fluctuating nature. The abstractions of surface and ground waters fell.
The percentage of total runoff off-take from the territory of Slovak Republic has remained about the same since 2015 with minimal increases and decreases.
The surface water abstractions were of fluctuating nature. The minimal declines were recorded in the groundwater abstractions.
The rate of water use declined. The abstractions of surface and ground waters was at the same level.
Water resources, particularly their renewable components (i.e. available for abstractions) are essential for human development and its economic activities. Water abstraction for public water supplies, industry and cooling in power plants represents a significant pressure on the water resources themselves, as well as on their quality and quantity issues. Though overall, in most European countries the volume of available water greatly exceeds the requirements on water resources imposed by the human society, the division of water resources and the intensity of their use is not, in terms of spatial and temporal characteristics, uniform.
Usable water per capita per year includes two factors: population growth and water resources provided by nature. In Central Europe, and especially in Slovakia, the usable water per capita per year reflects the development of natural conditions, since the population growth stagnates. Percentage of available water abstractions after 2000 is less than 10%, except in 2003, which was characterized as the extremely dry year, and significant abstractions for irrigation were reported.
The usable water is also related to the real requirements for water - water abstractions which fell significantly due to price increases, and drop of abstractions below 10% shows the excessive water saving.
|Outflow from the territory of the SR per capita (m3.103/year/capita)||1.29||2.21||4.22||2.12||1.78||2.03||2.04||1.62||1.72||2.15|
|% of abstractions from outflow from the territory of the SR||15.2||7.7||2.6||4.8||5.95||5.03||5.2||6.5||6.2||4.9|
Surface waters abstractions are closely related to the possibilities of sustainable use of water resources. It is important that the permitted quantities of surface water abstractions respect not only economic requirements, but also the requirements on the ecological limits of the water body, so that the over-exploitation of these resources would not damage the adjacent aquatic ecosystems. In 2020, abstractions amounted to 240.860 million m3, that was a decrease by 291.931 million m3 compared to 2005.
In 2020, surface waters abstractions fell to 240.86 million m3, which is a decrease by 0.7% in comparison to the previous year. The abstractions for the industry in 2020 amounted to 176.93 million m3, which was a decrease by 1.9%, compared to 2019. A slight incrrease was observed in the abstractions of surface water for water supply network, which -compared with the previous year- rising by 1.33 million m3, which represents 2.8%. Surface water abstractions for irrigation rose and amounted to 14.96 million m3.
|Industry||Irrigations||Other agric.||In total||Discharge|
In 2020, on the basis of hydrological assessments and surveys, 78 945 l.s-1 exploitable groundwater resources were available in Slovakia. Compared to the previous year 2019, a slight increase of exploitable groundwater resources by 879.1 l.s-1, i.e. by 1.12%, was shown. In long-term ratings, the increase in usable amounts compared to 1990 represents 4,172 l.s-1, i.e. 5.58%.
In 2020, customers (subject to reporting requirements under the Act) used an average of 10 578.58 l.s-1 of groundwater in total in Slovakia which was 13.4% of documented available volumes. During 2020, groundwater abstraction recorded decrease of 164.27 l.s-1, which represents drop by 1.55% compared to 2019.
|Food industry||Other industry||Agric. and
|Social purposes||Others||In total|
|1996||13 219,80||362,70||1 924,00||630,90||26,50||360,70||235,90||16 760,50|
|2000||11 188,38||321,23||1 177,18||446,78||18,20||432,99||632,66||14 217,42|
|2001||10 480,56||330,04||1 121,80||427,14||15,34||402,70||620,33||13 397,91|
|2002||10 201,77||311,24||1 101,19||392,86||34,78||323,09||648,24||13 013,17|
|2003||10 064,94||329,51||999,29||385,49||380,87||320,74||822,52||13 303,36|
|2004||9 431,53||322,04||901,65||320,51||65,17||327,02||832,93||12 200,85|
|2005||9 159,87||288,25||856,75||308,82||95,07||279,72||878,98||11 867,46|
|2006||8 836,13||295,62||852,34||275,80||94,96||340,15||970,20||11 665,20|
|2007||8 441,59||383,87||891,32||267,84||146,25||333,44||901,65||11 365,96|
|2008||8 468,82||284,98||823,02||253,29||67,52||271,23||953,23||11 122,09|
|2009||8 475,40||268,13||762,18||232,07||93,80||249,44||963,58||11 044,60|
|2010||8 295,00||265,00||781,00||217,20||48,70||245,40||967,20||10 819,50|
|2011||8 071,10||206,20||802,20||210,20||81,10||237,80||993,20||10 601,80|
|2012||8 149,70||256,60||797,80||221,20||108,40||218,40||967,25||10 719,40|
|2013||7 886,40||261,60||769,80||220,90||100,80||205,50||993,80||10 438,80|
|2014||7 674,20||238,60||752,70||227,00||120,60||190,40||983,80||10 187,30|
|2015||7 701,70||258,50||787,10||200,10||134,40||200,50||1 048,10||10 330,40|
|2016||7 626,70||243,70||788,50||211,80||103,70||242,80||1 006,40||10 223,60|
|2018||7 843,90||250,10||831,20||227,80||107,70||192,50||1 292,60||10 745,80|
|2019||7 786,81||265,68||798,59||227,54||198,03||206.34||1 259,80||10 742,85|
|2020||7 740,01||245,69||755,79||222,35||205,48||203,39||1 205,9||10 578,58|