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Soil reaction of agricultural lands

Last update of indicator 16.12.2021

Indicator definition

The indicator describes the percentage division of agricultural land according to soil reaction within the monitored periods.

Units

%

Metadata

Related policy documents and targets

Principles of the State Land Policy (2001)
The Slovak Government declares that the land of the Slovak Republic is the common wealth of the citizens of the state and the heritage of future generations. It is an essential and non-renewable resource, and it forms an integral part of Earth's ecosystems. It remains a basic environmental, ecological, economic and social potential of Slovakia, and must therefore be carefully protected from damage and unjustified reduction of its area and volume.
 

Rural Development Programme of SR 2014 - 2020 (2014)
Objective: Sustainable management of natural resources and adaptation to climate changes
Priority 4: Restoring, preserving and enhancing the ecosystems that are related to agriculture and forestry
13. Ensuring the protection of land from degradation
14: Preservation of agriculture in less favourable areas and efficient use of SR land resources

  • Utilising soil-protecting technologies of farming.
  • Soil-protecting minimising technologies.
  • Implementation of measures to improve soil structure (deep tillage, using manure or green fertilizing).
  • Organic agricultural systems and application of organic fertilisers.
  • Application of organic fertilisers in accordance with the law.
  • Support of integrated production and ecological agriculture measures.

 
Adaptation measures in the domain of agriculture.

  • Eco-friendly growing technologies.
  • Support of biological protection and integrated production.
  • Support of diversity of crops and securing of sustainable production and implementing of integrated management of pest control.
  • Implementation of integrated methods of pest control in agriculture.

 
Greener Slovakia - Environmental policy strategy of the Slovak Republic until 2030 (Envirostrategy 2030) (2019)
Goal: 3.1 Promoting more eco-friendly approaches in agriculture.
Priorities:

  • Ecological agricultural production will be covering at least 13.5% of soil by 2030.
  • Crop diversification will prevent soil nutrition loss, its drying, and it will serve as pest control.
  • Traditional local varieties which can better adapt to the local climate conditions will be preserved and protected.
 

Cieľ Integrovaného rozvojového programu I.

Rast a kvalitatívny rozvoj populácie, so špeciálnym dôrazom na vzdelanie, zdravie, kultúru, rozvoj občianskej spoločnosti a právneho štátu a ochrana a udržateľný manažment a rozvoj prírodných zdrojov.

I.5 Zabezpečiť efektívny a udržateľný manažment prírodných zdrojov

  • Zabezpečiť ochranu, obnovu a zveľaďovanie prírodných zdrojov vrátane zabezpečenia stability a zdravia ekosystémov a ich služieb a premietnutie adaptačných a mitigačných opatrení na nepriaznivé dôsledky zmeny klímy do všetkých rezortných strategických dokumentov a dokumentov rozvoja obcí a regiónov ako nadradený verejný záujem (napr. v plánovaní dopravy, v energetike, územnom plánovaní, vodnom hospodárstve, pôdohospodárstve, lesníctve, udržateľnom cestovnom ruchu, v celkovej starostlivosti o krajinu a iné).
  • Definovať znižovanie emisií skleníkových plynov a znečisťujúcich látok do životného prostredia a zamedzenie degradácie strategických prírodných zdrojov (voda, lesy a pôda) ako verejný záujem.
  • Znížiť acidifikáciu poľnohospodárskych pôd melioračným vápnením alebo podporiť základné agrochemické a agrotechnické opatrenia na celkové zlepšenie pôdnych kvalitatívnych parametrov s cieľom lepšieho využívania živín z hnojív.
  • Zvýšiť plochy pôdy s ekologickou poľnohospodárskou výrobou na úroveň 16 %, čo predstavuje ambiciózny nárast oproti terajšiemu dlhoročnému stavu (10 %), a tak sa priblížiť k ambíciám stanoveným v stratégiách EÚ.

 

Objective of the Integrated Development Program I.

Population growth and qualitative development, with special emphasis on education, health, culture, the development of civil society and the rule of law, and the conservation and sustainable management and development of natural resources.

I.5 Ensure effective and sustainable management of natural resources

  • Ensure the protection, restoration and improvement of natural resources, including ensuring the stability and health of ecosystems and their services and mainstreaming adaptation and mitigation measures to the adverse effects of climate change into all departmental strategic documents and municipal and regional development documents as an overriding public interest (e.g. in transport planning, energy, spatial planning, water management, agriculture, forestry, sustainable tourism, overall landscape care, etc.).
  • Define the reduction of emissions of greenhouse gases and pollutants into the environment and the avoidance of degradation of strategic natural resources (water, forests and soil) as a public interest.
  • Reduce the acidification of agricultural soils by ameliorative liming or promote basic agrochemical and agrotechnical measures to improve overall soil quality parameters with a view to better utilisation of nutrients from fertilisers.

 

Action plan for the implementation of the Slovak Climate Change Adaptation Strategy (2021)

Main objective:

To increase Slovakia's preparedness for the adverse effects of climate change through the implementation of cross-cutting and specific adaptation measures and tasks.

Specific objective 2 - Sustainable agriculture:

Increase the adaptive capacity of agricultural landscape management by applying measures aimed at protecting soil, natural resources and promoting the biodiversity of agricultural landscapes and promoting sustainable crop and livestock production.

Specific measures:

  • Support for soil protection measures
  • Adaptation of crop production to changed climatic conditions

 

Key question

Is the proportion of agricultural soils with acid soil reaction increasing?

Key messages

  • Results of agrochemical soil testing in the cycles (2006-2011) and the last complete cycle (2006-2017) showed an increase in the proportion of agricultural soils with acidic (+ 0.5%) and  alkaline (+ 2.9%) soil reaction.  On the contrary, the decrease was in the proportion of agricultural soils with weak acid (- 1.7%) and neutral (-1.7%) soil reaction.
 
Change since 2006 Change since 2015 Last year-on-year change
emo_sad emo_sad emo_none

The representation of agricultural soils with acid and alkaline soil reactions has increased, resulting in a decrease in the representation of soils with neutral soil reactions.

  The proportion of agricultural soils with an acid soil reaction continues to increase.

Only partial soil samples were evaluated.

Summary assessment














 

Detailed assessment

The range of soil reaction in agricultural soils is wide and variable within the different types and subtypes of soils.
The soil reaction directly and indirectly determines the living conditions for plants and soil microorganisms. It indicates the number of other important chemical and physical-chemical, and indirectly also biological soil properties, and to a large extent it determines the mobility of the trace elements in the soil. From the environmental viewpoint, the increase of areas with the acid soil reaction relates adversely to the increased mobility of heavy metals in soil.

 
Division of agricultural soils in the SR according to soil reaction within monitored periods (%)

Soil reaction 1990-1994 1995-1999 2000-2005 2006-2011 2012-2017 2018-2020*
Acidic (pH < 5.5)
 
17.8 16.8 21.2 23.4 23.9 23.1
Weak acid (pH 5.6 6.5)
 
24.4 30.7 37.0 35.2 33.5 43.7
Neutral  (pH 6.6 – 7.2)
 
38.3 32.5 28.0 23.4 21.7 20.2
Alkaline(pH > 7.3)
 
19.5 20.0 13.8 18.0 20.9 13.1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

* Partial values - statistically processed for years 2018 -2020
Source: CCTIA

 

 

 

 

Contact

Ing. Beata Kročková, SAŽP, beata.krockova@sazp.sk

Related definitions:

Soil reaction is expressed by pH values, which is the negative decimal logarithm of the value exponent, expressing the activity of hydrogen ions in the soil solution or in the soil leachate. The soil reaction is divided into active (in an aqueous extract) or exchangeable (in KCl, CaCl2 leachate).

Methodology:

Within the agrochemical soil testing (AST) by the  Central Control and Testing Institute of Agriculture (CCTIA) the development of accessible nutrients P, K, Mg and Ca content as well as soil pH are monitored, as a factor characterizing the ecological stability of soil resources. AST performs and ensures the widespread agrochemical testing of agricultural land used at least in 6-year intervals. Its activity is laid down by the Ministry of Agriculture Decree no. 338/2005 Coll., laying down the Details on the procedure for soil sampling, manner and extent of implementation of agrochemical soil testing, detecting soil properties of forest land, and on keeping the records of soil fertilization and nutritional status of plants on agricultural soil and forest lands.

Data sources:

CCTIA

Related indicators:

Linked references: